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Research Papers

A New Catheter for Tumor Targeting With Radioactive Microspheres in Representative Hepatic Artery Systems. Part I: Impact of Catheter Presence on Local Blood Flow and Microsphere Delivery

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Kleinstreuer

Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University1, Raleigh, NC 27695;  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599ck@eos.ncsu.edu

C. A. Basciano

Applied Research Associates, Physics-Based Computing Group, Southeast Division, Raleigh, NC 27615

E. M. Childress

Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,  North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695

A. S. Kennedy

Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Radiation Oncology, Cary, NC 27518

1

Site where research was performed.

J Biomech Eng 134(5), 051004 (May 25, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006684 History: Received October 20, 2011; Revised April 11, 2012; Posted May 01, 2012; Published May 25, 2012; Online May 25, 2012

Building on previous studies in which the transport and targeting of 90 Y microspheres for liver tumor treatment were numerically analyzed based on medical data sets, this two-part paper discusses the influence of an anchored, radially adjustable catheter on local blood flow and microsphere delivery in an idealized hepatic artery system (Part I). In Part II a patient-inspired case study with necessary conditions for optimal targeting of radioactive microspheres (i.e., yttrium 90) onto liver tumors is presented. A new concept of optimal catheter positioning is introduced for selective targeting of two daughter-vessel exits potentially connected to liver tumors. Assuming laminar flow in rigid blood vessels with an anchored catheter in three controlled positions, the transient three-dimensional (3D) transport phenomena were simulated employing user-enhanced engineering software. The catheter position as well as injection speed and delivery function may influence fluid flow and particle transport. Although the local influences of the catheter may not be negligible, unique cross-sectional particle release zones exist, with which selectively the new controlled targeting methodology would allow optimal microsphere delivery. The insight gained from this analysis paves the way for improved design and testing of a smart microcatheter (SMC) system as well as new investigations leading to even more successful treatment with 90 Y microspheres or combined internal radiation and chemotherapy.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Illustration of 90 Y-microsphere delivery and transport to liver tumors via (a) random radial catheter positioning and (b) assumed optimal catheter positioning for 100% tumor targeting. (Adaptation of an original by Andrew L. Richards. Adapted with permission.)

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Figure 9

Particle trajectories subject to different catheter injection speeds in steady flow. According to the particle release map of Fig. 8 for the 45 deg orientation, catheter injection of the particles should exit D1 and D4. This is true for catheter velocities that are 0.01 and 1 times the artery inlet velocity. However, as the injection velocity increases, the particles begin to exit nontarget branches.

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Figure 10

(a) Particle trajectories and (b) global particle exit fractions for transient SMC delivery to D1 and D4 for particles injected over 0.0615 s of the systolic phase as established by the PRM in Fig. 8 for the 45 deg SMC orientation. D4 collects more particles than D1, while many particles do not exit the catheter due to the required injection speed and small simulation time.

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Figure 2

Representative hepatic artery system with common hepatic artery (CHA), proper hepatic artery (PHA), gastroduodenal artery (GDA), right hepatic artery (RHA), left hepatic artery (LHA), and four daughter vessels (D1–D4). Included are the anchored smart microcatheter (SMC) domain having two sets of three support legs along with the applied boundary conditions.

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Figure 3

Computational domain of anchored SMC domain (dc  = catheter diameter)

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Figure 4

Apparent viscosity versus shear rate curve of the Quemada model (solid line) compared to the Newtonian viscosity (dashed line) and the experimental data of Merrill [15] (dots)

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Figure 5

Angular cross-sectional positions of SMC (0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg orientations)

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Figure 6

Velocity profiles at the terminal end of the SMC for lines through the lumen center points (left) and without beam obstruction (right). These profiles illustrate the effects that the presence of the SMC has on the flow.

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Figure 7

Transient flow recirculation at the terminal end of the SMC with no catheter flow at peak systole (left) and recirculation length past SMC over one pulse (right). The figure to the right shows that the shape of the recirculation length versus time is similar to the shape of the inlet flow waveform.

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Figure 8

Velocity contours and particle release maps (PRMs) without and with the presence of the SMC for the three orientations. The velocity contours (at t = 0.15 t/T) reveal that local disturbances caused by the presence of the SMC quickly vanish, resulting in indistinguishable influence on the downstream flow. The PRMs reveal the significant effect of the catheter presence on the particle trajectories due to the local disturbance.

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