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Research Papers

Investigation of Saccadic Eye Movement Effects on the Fluid Dynamic in the Anterior Chamber

[+] Author and Article Information
Omid Abouali

e-mail: abouali@shirazu.ac.ir

Amirreza Modareszadeh

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shiraz University, 71348-51154,
Shiraz, Iran

Alireza Ghaffarieh

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences,
University of Wisconsin Medical School,
Madison, WI 53792, USA

Jiyuan Tu

School of Aerospace,
Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
RMIT University,
Bundoora VIC 3083, Australia

1Corresponding Author.

Contributed by the Bioengineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 22, 2011; final manuscript received January 2, 2012; accepted manuscript posted January 24, 2012; published online March 14, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Victor H. Barocas.

J Biomech Eng 134(2), 021002 (Mar 14, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005762 History: Received May 22, 2011; Revised January 02, 2012; Accepted January 24, 2012

The aqueous humor (AH) flow in the anterior chamber (AC) due to saccadic movements is investigated in this research. The continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations in 3D and unsteady forms are solved numerically and the saccadic motion was modeled by the dynamic mesh technique. Firstly, the numerical model was validated for the saccadic movement of a spherical cavity with analytic solutions and experimental data where excellent agreement was observed. Then, two types of periodic and realistic saccadic motions of the AC are simulated, whereby the flow field is computed for various saccade amplitudes and the results are reported for different times. The results show that the acting shear stress on the corneal endothelial cells from AH due to saccadic movements is much higher than that due to normal AH flow by buoyancy induced due to temperature gradient. This shear stress is higher on the central region of the cornea. The results also depict that eye saccade imposes a 3D complicated flow field in the AC consist of various vortex structures. Finally, the enchantment of heat transfer in the AC by AH mixing as a result of saccadic motion is investigated.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The anatomy of the anterior chamber: (a) the computational model for the anterior chamber; (b) a cross section; (c) a 3-D view

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Fig. 2

Comparison of dimensionless maximum value reached in time by the circumferential velocity at each point in the radial direction (uϕ(r))maxΩpR for amplitude of 40 deg and duration of 0.247 s in a spherical cavity

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Fig. 3

(a) The shear stress contours on the posterior surface of cornea for various saccade amplitudes at different times; (b) The shear stress contours on the posterior surface of cornea for the case of pure natural convection

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Fig. 4

The time variation of the maximum shear stress on the corneal endothelial cells for various saccade amplitudes

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Fig. 5

(a) The velocity magnitude (mm/s) contours for various amplitudes and (b) Streamlines for saccade amplitude of 50 deg on the equatorial plane of anterior chamber at different times of saccade duration

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Fig. 6

The streamlines (colored by in plane velocity magnitude in mm/s) of the flow field in the middle vertical plane of the AC for various saccade amplitudes at different times

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Fig. 7

The time variation of the maximum shear stress on the corneal endothelial cells for periodic saccadic movements, (a) Amplitude of 6 deg and (b) Amplitude of 30 deg

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Fig. 8

The stream lines colored by in plane velocity magnitude (mm/s) for the average of the in plane flow field on the equatorial and vertical planes for (a) Natural convection in stagnant AC, (b) Saccade amplitude of 6 deg, and (c) Saccade amplitude of 30 deg

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Fig. 9

The time variation of the heat transfer through the cornea from the anterior chamber for the saccadic movement with amplitude of 50 deg and comparison with pure conduction and natural convection cases

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