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Research Papers

Partial Meniscectomy Changes Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage in Human Knees

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Kazemi

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,  University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, N. W., Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada

L. P. Li1

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,  University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, N. W., Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, CanadaLeping.Li@ucalgary.ca

M. D. Buschmann, P. Savard

 Institut de Génie Biomédical,  École Polytechnique de Montréal, C. P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3A7, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 134(2), 021001 (Feb 15, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005764 History: Received August 12, 2011; Revised December 23, 2011; Posted January 24, 2012; Published February 14, 2012; Online February 15, 2012

Partial meniscectomy is believed to change the biomechanics of the knee joint through alterations in the contact of articular cartilages and menisci. Although fluid pressure plays an important role in the load support mechanism of the knee, the fluid pressurization in the cartilages and menisci has been ignored in the finite element studies of the mechanics of meniscectomy. In the present study, a 3D fibril-reinforced poromechanical model of the knee joint was used to explore the fluid flow dependent changes in articular cartilage following partial medial and lateral meniscectomies. Six partial longitudinal meniscectomies were considered under relaxation, simple creep, and combined creep loading conditions. In comparison to the intact knee, partial meniscectomy not only caused a substantial increase in the maximum fluid pressure but also shifted the location of this pressure in the femoral cartilage. Furthermore, these changes were positively correlated to the size of meniscal resection. While in the intact joint, the location of the maximum fluid pressure was dependent on the loading conditions, in the meniscectomized joint the location was predominantly determined by the site of meniscal resection. The partial meniscectomy also reduced the rate of the pressure dissipation, resulting in even larger difference between creep and relaxation times as compared to the case of the intact knee. The knee joint became stiffer after meniscectomy because of higher fluid pressure at knee compression followed by slower pressure dissipation. The present study indicated the role of fluid pressurization in the altered mechanics of meniscectomized knees.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Finite element model of the right knee developed for different longitudinal meniscectomies: (a) anterior lateral (AL), (b) central lateral (CL), (c) extended lateral (EL), (d) posterior medial (PM), (e) central medial (CM), and (f) extended medial (EM). Shaded elements were removed in each case to simulate the corresponding meniscectomy.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Fluid pressure (MPa) in the deep layer of the femoral cartilage at t = 10 s of the stress relaxation loading. (a) Intact knee, (b) AL, (c) CL, (d) EL, (e) PM, (f) CM, and (g) EM meniscectomized knees. The fluid pressure was obtained for the centroids of the elements located at the 3/4 depth from the articular surface. The dashed lines indicate the position of the (remaining) menisci if they were attached.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Fluid pressure (MPa) in the deep layer of the femoral cartilage at t = 2000 s of the stress relaxation loading. (a) Intact knee, (b) AL, (c) CL, (d) EL, (e) PM, (f) CM, and (g) EM meniscectomized knees. The fluid pressure was obtained for the centroids of the elements located at the 3/4 depth from the articular surface. The dashed lines indicate the position of the (remaining) menisci if they were attached.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Normalized maximum fluid pressure in the femoral cartilage of the knee when subjected to stress relaxation. (a) Lateral meniscectomies (AL, CL, and EL), (b) medial meniscectomies (PM, CM, and EM). The results were normalized with respect to the maximum pressure of the intact knee at 10 s. The fluid pressure was obtained for the layer of the femoral cartilage located at the 3/4 depth from the articular surface.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Fluid pressure (MPa) in the deep layer of the femoral cartilage of the knee when subjected to simple creep loading. The left column is the results at t = 10 s and the right column corresponds to t = 2000 s. (a) Intact knee, (b) EL, and (c) EM meniscectomized knees. The fluid pressure was obtained for the centroids of the elements located at the 3/4 depth from the articular surface. The dashed lines indicate the position of the (remaining) menisci if they were attached.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Normalized maximum fluid pressure in the femoral cartilage of the knee when subjected to simple creep loading. (a) Lateral meniscectomies (AL, CL, and EL), (b) medial meniscectomies (PM, CM, and EM). The results were normalized with respect to the maximum pressure of the intact knee at 10 s. The fluid pressure was obtained for the layer of the femoral cartilage located at the 3/4 depth from the articular surface.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Fluid pressure (MPa) in the deep layer of the femoral cartilage of the knee when subjected to combined creep loading. The left column is the results at t = 10 s and the right column corresponds to t = 2000 s. (a) Intact knee, (b) EL, and (c) EM meniscectomized knees. The fluid pressure was obtained for the centroids of the elements located at the 3/4 depth from the articular surface. The dashed lines indicate the position of the (remaining) menisci if they were attached.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Normalized maximum fluid pressure in the femoral cartilage of the knee when subjected to combined creep loading. (a) Lateral meniscectomies (AL, CL, and EL), (b) medial meniscectomies (PM, CM, and EM). The results were normalized with respect to the maximum pressure of the intact knee at 10 s. The fluid pressure was obtained for the layer of the femoral cartilage located at the 3/4 depth from the articular surface.

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