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Evaluating Foot Kinematics Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Maximum Plantar Flexion, Inversion, and Internal Rotation to Maximum Dorsiflexion, Eversion, and External Rotation

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael J. Fassbind, Eric S. Rohr

RR&D Center of Excellence for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering, VA Puget Sound Heath Care System, Seattle, WA 98108

Yangqiu Hu

Department of Bioengineering,  University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195

David R. Haynor

Departments of Bioengineering and Radiology,  University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195

Sorin Siegler

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics,  Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Bruce J. Sangeorzan

RR&D Center of Excellence for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering, VA Puget Sound Heath Care System, Seattle, WA 98108; Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine,  University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195

William R. Ledoux

RR&D Center of Excellence for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering, VA Puget Sound Heath Care System, Seattle, WA 98108; Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine and, Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195,wrledoux@u.washington.edu

J Biomech Eng 133(10), 104502 (Nov 03, 2011) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005177 History: Received September 09, 2011; Revised September 13, 2011; Accepted September 14, 2011; Published November 03, 2011; Online November 03, 2011

The foot consists of many small bones with complicated joints that guide and limit motion. A variety of invasive and noninvasive means [mechanical, X-ray stereophotogrammetry, electromagnetic sensors, retro-reflective motion analysis, computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] have been used to quantify foot bone motion. In the current study we used a foot plate with an electromagnetic sensor to determine an individual subject’s foot end range of motion (ROM) from maximum plantar flexion, internal rotation, and inversion to maximum plantar flexion, inversion, and internal rotation to maximum dorsiflexion, eversion, and external rotation. We then used a custom built MRI-compatible device to hold each subject’s foot during scanning in eight unique positions determined from the end ROM data. The scan data were processed using software that allowed the bones to be segmented with the foot in the neutral position and the bones in the other seven positions to be registered to their base positions with minimal user intervention. Bone to bone motion was quantified using finite helical axes (FHA). FHA for the talocrural, talocalcaneal, and talonavicular joints compared well to published studies, which used a variety of technologies and input motions. This study describes a method for quantifying foot bone motion from maximum plantar flexion, inversion, and internal rotation to maximum dorsiflexion, eversion, and external rotation with relatively little user processing time.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

(a) Foot in back portion of modified ankle loading device (ALD) with Polhemus sensor on the plate. (A) foot plate, (B) Polhemus sensor, (C) Polhemus transmitter, (D) distal leg holder, and (E) proximal leg holder. (b) Foot in modified ALD with (F) foot positioning device.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Segmented bones using Multi-Rigid. Darker lines represent the initial seeds used to begin the segmentation process, while the lighter colors show the resulting segmented bone volumes.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Joints of the foot from a representative subject (NA01R) with eight finite helical axes (FHA), color coded by change in position (e.g., 1→8 is the FHA describing motion between the two end positions)

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