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Research Papers

The Effects of Wind and Posture on the Aerodynamic Performance During the Flight Stage of Skiing

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhifeng Chen

Zhejiang College of Construction, Hangzhou 311231, China

Haisheng Fang1

School of Energy and Power Engineering,  Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Chinahafang@gmail.com

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 133(9), 091001 (Oct 04, 2011) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004947 History: Received June 02, 2011; Accepted August 26, 2011; Published October 04, 2011; Online October 04, 2011

Numerical simulation is conducted to evaluate the wind and posture effects on the aerodynamic performance of a skier during the flight stage. Both steady and unsteady models are applied on a 2D geometry. Using the Fluent code, the fundamental equations of fluid flow are solved simultaneously. In particular we focus on the influence of wind speed and direction on aerodynamic forces with several different postures of the skier in steady modeling. For a chosen case, the unsteady models are used to predict the transient characteristics of streamline distributions and aerodynamic forces. It is found that the skier’s postures, wind speed, and direction play a significant role. The wind condition affects the pressure force (the form drag) on the skier and makes it a resistance or thrust regarding wind directions. The optimized posture with a minimization of resistance under a facing wind is determined as a moving-forward body of the skier. The unsteady modeling reveals that the wake around the skier and aerodynamic forces are strongly dependent on time. This initial study not only provides a qualitative and theoretical basis for the athletes to understand the effects of wind and postures, and then to optimize their postures according to the wind condition during the flight stage of skiing, but also builds the foundation for the systematic study of skiing process with more advanced CFD models in the future.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Schematic diagram of a skier. (b) The postures used in the study.

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Figure 2

(a) The calculation domain and unstructured grid system. (b) The refined grid distribution around the skier.

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Figure 3

Streamline patterns around the skier

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Figure 4

The effects of wind speeds on the forces

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Figure 5

(a) The effects of wind direction on the streamline distributions. (b) The effects of wind direction on the total force.

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Figure 6

(a) The effects of postures on the streamline distributions. (b) The effects of postures on the total force with various wind speeds.

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Figure 7

The transient characteristics of the wake around the skier

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Figure 8

The variation of the total force on the skier as a function of time

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