The aim of this study was to maximize oxygen diffusion within a three-dimensional scaffold in order to improve cell viability and proliferation. To evaluate the effect of pore architecture on oxygen diffusion, we designed a regular channel shape with uniform diameter, referred to as cylinder shaped, and a new channel shape with a channel diameter gradient, referred to as cone shaped. A numerical analysis predicted higher oxygen concentration in the cone-shaped channels than in the cylinder-shaped channels, throughout the scaffold. To confirm these numerical results, we examined cell proliferation and viability in 2D constructs and 3D scaffolds. Cell culture experiments revealed that cell proliferation and viability were superior in the constructs and scaffolds with cone-shaped channels.