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Research Papers

Evaluation of Negative Fixed-Charge Density in Tissue-Engineered Cartilage by Quantitative MRI and Relationship With Biomechanical Properties

[+] Author and Article Information
Shogo Miyata1

Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japanmiyata@mech.keio.ac.jp

Kazuhiro Homma

 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki 305-8564, Japan

Tomokazu Numano

 Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 116-8551, Japan

Tetsuya Tateishi

 National Institute for Material Science, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan

Takashi Ushida

Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 132(7), 071014 (Jun 02, 2010) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001369 History: Received March 31, 2009; Revised March 02, 2010; Posted March 03, 2010; Published June 02, 2010; Online June 02, 2010

Applying tissue-engineered cartilage in a clinical setting requires noninvasive evaluation to detect the maturity of the cartilage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of articular cartilage has been widely accepted and applied clinically in recent years. In this study, we evaluated the negative fixed-charge density (nFCD) of tissue-engineered cartilage using gadolinium-enhanced MRI and determined the relationship between nFCD and biomechanical properties. To reconstruct cartilage tissue, articular chondrocytes from bovine humeral heads were embedded in agarose gel and cultured in vitro for up to 4 weeks. The nFCD of the cartilage was determined using the MRI gadolinium exclusion method. The equilibrium modulus was determined using a compressive stress relaxation test, and the dynamic modulus was determined by a dynamic compression test. The equilibrium compressive modulus and dynamic modulus of the tissue-engineered cartilage increased with an increase in culture time. The nFCD value—as determined with the [Gd-DTPA2] measurement using the MRI technique—increased with culture time. In the regression analysis, nFCD showed significant correlations with equilibrium compressive modulus and dynamic modulus. From these results, gadolinium-enhanced MRI measurements can serve as a useful predictor of the biomechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In all MRI measurements, the cultured specimens were put into glass tubes filled with PBS or 1 mM Gd-DTPA2−.

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Figure 2

Quantitative water proton T1-maps in the presence of Gd-DTPA2− at day 3 (a), day 7 (b), day 14 (c), and day 28 (d)

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Figure 3

Tissue fixed-charge density, with time in culture, for tissue-engineered cartilage.  ∗ indicates significant difference from day 1 (P<0.05).

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Figure 4

Histological appearance of tissue-engineered cartilage at day 1 (a), day 10 (b), and day 28 (c), stained with alcian blue

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Figure 5

Equilibrium compressive modulus Eeq (a) and dynamic compressive modulus Edyn (b), with time in culture, for the cultured chondrocyte/agarose disks.  ∗ indicates significant difference from day 1 or day 3 (P<0.05).

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Figure 6

Typical scatter plots relating the tissue fixed-charge density to equilibrium compressive modulus Eeq (a) and dynamic compressive modulus Edyn at 0.5 Hz (b)

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