The liver harvested from a donor must be preserved and transported to a suitable recipient immediately for a successful liver transplantation. In this process, the preservation period is the most critical, since it is the longest and most tissue damage occurs during this period due to the reduced blood supply to the harvested liver and the change in its temperature. We investigate the effect of preservation period on the dynamic material properties of bovine liver using a viscoelastic model derived from both impact and ramp and hold experiments. First, we measure the storage and loss moduli of bovine liver as a function of excitation frequency using an impact hammer. Second, its time-dependent relaxation modulus is measured separately through ramp and hold experiments performed by a compression device. Third, a Maxwell solid model that successfully imitates the frequency- and time-dependent dynamic responses of bovine liver is developed to estimate the optimum viscoelastic material coefficients by minimizing the error between the experimental data and the corresponding values generated by the model. Finally, the variation in the viscoelastic material coefficients of bovine liver are investigated as a function of preservation period for the liver samples tested 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h after harvesting. The results of our experiments performed with three animals show that the liver tissue becomes stiffer and more viscous as it spends more time in the preservation cycle.