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Research Papers

Ballistic Impact of Single Particles Into Gelatin: Experiments and Modeling With Application to Transdermal Pharmaceutical Delivery

[+] Author and Article Information
R. A. Guha

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St., Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3

N. H. Shear

Department of Medicine (Dermatology and Clinical Pharmacology), Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 27 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A1

M. Papini1

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3mpapini@ryerson.ca

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 132(10), 101003 (Sep 28, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002428 History: Received March 31, 2010; Revised August 05, 2010; Posted August 24, 2010; Published September 28, 2010; Online September 28, 2010

The impact and penetration of high speed particles with the human skin is of interest for targeted drug delivery by transdermal powder injection. However, it is often difficult to perform penetration experiments on dermal tissue using micron scale particles. To address this, a finite element model of the impact and penetration of a 2μm gold particle into the human dermis was developed and calibrated using experiments found in the literature. Using dimensional analysis, the model was linked to a larger scale steel ball-gelatin system in order to extract key material parameters for both systems and perform impact studies. In this manner, an elastic modulus of 2.25 MPa was found for skin, in good agreement with reported values from the literature. Further gelatin experiments were performed with steel, polymethyl methacrylate, titanium, and tungsten carbide balls in order to determine the effects of particle size and density on penetration depth. Both the finite element model and the steel-gelatin experiments were able to predict the penetration behavior that was found by other investigators in the study of the impact of typical particles used for vaccine delivery into the human dermis. It can therefore be concluded that scaled up systems utilizing ballistic gelatins can be used to investigate the performance of transdermal powder injection technology.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 6

Particle impact parameter versus penetration depth for various particle sizes; data from literature (2) and FE results

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Figure 9

Effect of particle density on penetration depth for a velocity of 100 m/s using PMMA, titanium, steel, and tungsten carbide balls plotted with a linear trendline

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Figure 10

Particle impact parameter versus penetration depth for various particle sizes; data from literature (2) and linear extrapolation of experimental results

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Figure 1

Mesh and boundary conditions used in the modeling of the particle and target for both the model and calibration systems; AB is axisymmetric boundary and OB is outer boundary; all other boundaries left free

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Figure 2

Number of elements used to mesh the skin layer and resulting particle penetration for a 2 μm gold particle with a velocity of 580 m/s impacting the skin

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Figure 3

Schematic of experimental setup (31)

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Figure 4

The sabot used with the gas gun to launch the particles in the gelatin experiments. Particle inside sabot is a 3.18 mm diameter steel ball bearing

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Figure 5

Gelatin sample with wire used to measure the particle penetration

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Figure 7

Gelatin experiments using balls of varying sizes and velocities; data is plotted with linear trendlines. Secondary horizontal and vertical axes examine particle impact parameters and penetration of equivalent microparticles on skin; PMMA, Ti, and WC indicate experiments using polymethylmethacry late, titanium alloy, and tungsten carbide balls, respectively

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Figure 8

Penetrations for steel balls of diameters 1.59 mm, 2.39 mm, and 3.18 mm with impact velocities of 100 m/s plotted with a linear trendline. Secondary horizontal and vertical axes examine the penetrations of equivalent microparticles on skin.

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