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Technical Briefs

Development of Biomechanical Response Corridors of the Head to Blunt Ballistic Temporo-Parietal Impact

[+] Author and Article Information
David Raymond, Greg Crawford, Chris Van Ee

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University, 818 West Hancock Road, Detroit, MI 48201

Cynthia Bir1

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University, 818 West Hancock Road, Detroit, MI 48201cbir@wayne.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 131(9), 094506 (Aug 28, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3194751 History: Received July 04, 2008; Revised April 28, 2009; Published August 28, 2009

There is a need to study the biomechanical response of the head to blunt ballistic impact. While the frequency of less-lethal munition impacts to the head may be less than other vital body regions, more serious injuries have been attributed to these impacts. This study aims to establish biomechanical response corridors for the temporo-parietal region for future development of biomechanical surrogate devices. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subject specimens were exposed to blunt ballistic temporo-parietal head impact (103 g, 38 mm diameter impactor) to determine the force-time, deformation-time, and force-deformation responses. Comparisons were made to responses from prior blunt ballistic head impact studies, as well as automotive-related impact studies. Peak forces for impact condition A (19.5±2.6m/s) were 3659±1248N with deformations at peak force of 7.3±2.1mm. Peak forces for impact condition B (33.6±1.4m/s) were 5809±1874N with deformations at peak force of 9.9±2.6mm. Seven fractures were produced in the seven specimens. Depressed comminuted fracture types were documented in six of the seven cases. The average stiffness of the temporo-parietal region under blunt ballistic impact was 0.46±0.14kN/mm. Stiffness results indicate that the response of the temporo-parietal region is similar to the forehead under blunt ballistic loading conditions. In addition, the response is significantly less stiff when compared with temporo-parietal impacts performed in automotive-related studies. These data provide the foundation for future research in the area of blunt ballistic head impact research including the development of biomechanical surrogates and computational models.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Impactor and tailpiece

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Figure 2

Strain gauge locations relative to the targeted impact location

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Figure 4

Correlation between principle strains and force for a fracture-producing impact to specimen 2908

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Figure 5

Mass, age, and gender effects on deformation, force, and stiffness

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Figure 6

Force-deformation curves for impact conditions A (a) and B (b)

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Figure 7

Force-time, deformation-time, and force-deformation plots for conditions A (a) and B (b)

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Figure 8

Normalization of condition A force-deformation corridors based on head breadth (a) and head mass (b)

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Figure 9

Post-test CT (a) and autopsy (b) of specimen 2978 demonstrating a right depressed comminuted fracture of the temporo-parietal region

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Figure 12

Condition A and B force-deformation corridors

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Figure 13

Temporo-parietal stiffness compared with prior studies

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Figure 11

Deformation at peak force between matched specimen tests for conditions A and B

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Figure 10

Peak force for matched specimens for conditions A and B

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