Technical Briefs

Measurements of the Static Friction Coefficient Between Bone and Muscle Tissues

[+] Author and Article Information
Sharon Shacham

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

David Castel

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

Amit Gefen1

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israelgefen@eng.tau.ac.il

Teflon has a low μ in contact with metals, less than 0.05 (21).

Specifically: m. extensor carpi radialis, m. extensor digitorum communis, m. extensor digitii II-V, m. abductor digiti I longus, m. extensor digitalis lateralis, m. anconeus.

We did not find a significant preconditioning effect in repetitive testing for the six test cycles.


Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 132(8), 084502 (Jun 28, 2010) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001893 History: Received April 24, 2010; Revised May 24, 2010; Posted May 31, 2010; Published June 28, 2010; Online June 28, 2010

This study aimed at measuring the static coefficient of friction (μ) between bone and skeletal muscle tissues in order to support finite element (FE) modeling in orthopaedic and rehabilitation research, where such contact conditions need to be defined. A custom-made friction meter (FM) that employs the load cell and motion-controlled loading arm of a materials testing machine was designed for this study. The FM was used to measure μ between fresh ulna bones and extensor muscles surrounding the ulna, which were harvested from five young adult pigs. Mean bone-muscle μ were between 0.36 and 0.29, decreased with the increase in loads applied on the bone (p<0.05) and plateaued at a mean 0.3 for loads exceeding 4 N. Hence, for FE modeling of bone-muscle contacts through which loads with magnitudes of kgs to 10s-of-kgs are transferred, assuming μ of 0.3 appears to be appropriate.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

The friction meter: (1) container for muscle tissue specimens; (2) weight holder for applying loads on the bone specimen; (3) weight made of Derlin; (4) pulley and wire to connect the bone specimen to the loading arm of the materials testing machine

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Figure 2

Example of raw data of the frictional force versus movement of the loading arm of the materials testing machine, which was used to calculate the static coefficient of friction between the bone and muscle specimens from the peak friction force measured just before relative bone-muscle motion started.

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Figure 3

Means and standard deviations of the static coefficient of friction versus the load applied on bone specimens (including the bone's self-weight), for all trials from the entire group of animals



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