0
Technical Briefs

Foot Segment Kinematics During Normal Walking Using a Multisegment Model of the Foot and Ankle Complex

[+] Author and Article Information
Thomas R. Jenkyn, Kiersten Anas

Wolf Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London ON N6A 5B9, Canada

Alexander Nichol

Department of Bioengineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NW, UK

J Biomech Eng 131(3), 034504 (Jan 05, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2907750 History: Received October 31, 2006; Revised July 12, 2007; Published January 05, 2009

Gait analysis using optical tracking equipment has been demonstrated to be a clinically useful tool for measuring three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of the human body. However, in current practice, the foot is treated as a single rigid segment that articulates with the lower leg, meaning the motions of the joints of the foot cannot be measured. A multisegment kinematic model of the foot was developed for use in a gait analysis laboratory. The foot was divided into hindfoot, talus, midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot segments. Six functional joints were defined: Ankle and subtalar joints, frontal and transverse plane motions of the hindfoot relative to midfoot, supination-pronation twist of the forefoot relative to midfoot, and medial longitudinal arch height-to-length ratio. Twelve asymptomatic subjects were tested during barefoot walking with a six-camera optical stereometric system and passive markers organized in triads. Repeatability of reported motions was tested using coefficients of multiple correlation. Ankle and subtalar joint motions and twisting of the forefoot were most repeatable. Hindfoot motions were least repeatable both within subjects and between subjects. Hindfoot and forefoot pronations in the frontal place were found to coincide with dropping of the medial longitudinal arch between early to midstance, followed by supination and rising of the arch in late stance and swing phase. This multisegment foot model overcomes a major shortcoming in current gait analysis practice—the inability to measure motion within the foot. Such measurements are crucial if gait analysis is to remain relevant in orthopaedic and rehabilitative treatment of the foot and ankle.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Rigid segments of the right leg and foot showing the three bony landmarks per segment used to construct the segment-fixed axis systems. See Table 2 for explanation of landmark acronyms. The landmark at the greater trochanter (FGT) of the femur is not shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

(a) Rigid cluster configuration: The base was polyethylene with 3mm diameter carbon-fiber stalks, markers were 10mm foam spheres covered in reflective tape (3M, Minneapolis, MN). (b) The stylus used for digitizing bony landmarks, constructed with the same carbon-fiber rod and foam spheres as the clusters. (c) Marker cluster locations on each rigid segment. Lower leg and midfoot segments each have two clusters, while the other segments have only one each.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Motions of foot and ankle complex. (a) Ankle (talocrural) joint motion was defined as rotation of the talus with respect to the lower leg segment about the 2̂-axis of the ankle joint coordinate system (JCS). (b) The subtalar (talocalcaneonavicular) joint was defined as midfoot segment rotation with respect to the talus about the 2̂-axis of the subtalar JCS. (c) Using the method of Grood and Suntay (1983), the motion of the hindfoot segment with respect to the midfoot segment was defined as supination-pronation about the midfoot 3̂-axis and internal-external rotation about the midfoot 1̂-axis. (d) The compound twisting of both the lateral and medial forefoot segments with respect to the midfoot segment was defined as the angle between the 2̂-axis of the midfoot and the vector joining the heads of the first and fifth metatarsals projected into the midfoot 1̂–2̂-plane (local frontal plane). Increasing angle represents increasing supintation of the forefoot. (e) The shape of the medial longitudinal arch was described using the height-to-length ratio (h∕L) defined using three landmarks (CAMT, MNT, and MiH).

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

(a) Ankle joint motion and (b) subtalar joint motion averaged over all subjects showing one positive and negative standard deviation. Horizontal axis is normalized to one stride from heel strike to heel strike. Neutral positions are taken from upright standing and TO represents the average timing of toe-off of the weight-bearing leg.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Hindfoot segment motion with respect to the midfoot in (a) the frontal plane and (b) transverse plane, averaged over all subjects showing one positive and negative standard deviation. The horizontal axis is normalized to one stride from heel strike to heel strike. Neutral positions are taken from upright standing and TO represents the average timing of toe-off of the weight-bearing leg.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

(a) Twisting motion of the forefoot segments with respect to the midfoot. (b) Height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch normalized to 1.0 in quiet standing. Both plots are averaged over all subjects showing one positive and negative standard deviation. The horizontal axis is normalized to one stride from heel strike to heel strike. Neutral position is taken from upright standing and TO represents the average timing of toe-off of the weight-bearing leg.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In