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Research Papers

Effect of Geometrical Assumptions on Numerical Modeling of Coronary Blood Flow Under Normal and Disease Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Saravan Kumar Shanmugavelayudam, David A. Rubenstein

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-5016

Wei Yin1

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-5016wei.yin@okstate.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 132(6), 061004 (Apr 21, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001033 History: Received November 02, 2009; Revised January 08, 2010; Posted January 18, 2010; Published April 21, 2010; Online April 21, 2010

Shear stress plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. The spatial and temporal variation in hemodynamics of blood flow, especially shear stress, is dominated by the vessel geometry. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of 2D and 3D geometries on the numerical modeling of coronary blood flow and shear stress distribution. We developed physiologically realistic 2D and 3D models (with similar geometries) of the human left coronary artery under normal and stenosis conditions (30%, 60%, and 80%) using PROE (WF 3) . Transient blood flows in these models were solved using laminar and turbulent (k-ω) models using a computational fluid dynamics solver, FLUENT (v6.3.26) . As the stenosis severity increased, both models predicted a similar pattern of increased shear stress at the stenosis throat, and in recirculation zones formed downstream of the stenosis. The 2D model estimated a peak shear stress value of 0.91, 2.58, 5.21, and 10.09 Pa at the throat location under normal, 30%, 60%, and 80% stenosis severity. The peak shear stress values at the same location estimated by the 3D model were 1.41, 2.56, 3.15, and 13.31 Pa, respectively. The 2D model underestimated the shear stress distribution inside the recirculation zone compared with that of 3D model. The shear stress estimation between the models diverged as the stenosis severity increased. Hence, the 2D model could be sufficient for analyzing coronary blood flow under normal conditions, but under disease conditions (especially 80% stenosis) the 3D model was more suitable.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The geometries of the 2D (a) and 3D (b) models of the left coronary artery (LCA) with left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), and left circumflex (LCX) branches under normal conditions. Region marked in the circle is the location of stenosis under disease conditions. Arrow indicates the flow direction.

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Figure 2

Inlet coronary artery centerline velocity waveform over three cardiac cycles (heart rate=72 bpm)

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Figure 3

Velocity vector distribution (0.8 s) inside the LAD in 3D and 2D models under normal (A, B), 30% stenosis (C, D), 60% stenosis (E, F), and 80% stenosis (G, H) conditions. For 3D images (A, C, E, and G), vectors on all nodes are shown in the center, a plane parallel to Y-axis and passing through the flow center domain is shown on the bottom and velocity profile perpendicular to flow direction is shown on the top. For 2D images, vectors on all nodes are shown in the center and the velocity profiles at plane perpendicular to flow direction are shown on the bottom.

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Figure 4

WSS distribution on the upper wall of LAD over three cardiac cycles under all conditions. WSS (Z-axis) is plotted as a function of time (X-axis) and location on LAD (Y-axis). (A) Normal condition, (B) 30% stenosis condition, (C) 60% stenosis condition, and (D) 80% stenosis condition. Scales are different.

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Figure 5

Shear stress distribution at the throat cross section in 2D (A, C, E, G) and 3D (B, D, F, G) models. The upper and lower walls are marked as X and X′, respectively. (A, B) Normal condition, (C, D) 30% stenosis, (E, F) 60% stenosis, and (G, H) 80% stenosis. Scales are different.

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Figure 6

Shear stress distribution in the recirculation zones in 2D (A, C, E, G) and 3D (B, D, F, G) models (5 mm downstream the stenosis throat). The upper and lower walls are marked as X and X′, respectively. X is the location of recirculation zone. (A, B) Normal condition, (C, D) 30% stenosis, (E, F) 60% stenosis, and (G, H) 80% stenosis. Scales are different.

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