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Research Papers

Differential Passive and Active Biaxial Mechanical Behaviors of Muscular and Elastic Arteries: Basilar Versus Common Carotid

[+] Author and Article Information
H. P. Wagner

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

J. D. Humphrey1

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520; Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520jay.humphrey@yale.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 133(5), 051009 (May 17, 2011) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003873 History: Received February 05, 2011; Revised March 19, 2011; Posted March 28, 2011; Published May 17, 2011; Online May 17, 2011

Cerebrovascular disease continues to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. There is, therefore, a pressing need to understand better the biomechanics of both intracranial arteries and the extracranial arteries that feed these vessels. We used a validated four-fiber family constitutive relation to model passive biaxial stress-stretch behaviors of basilar and common carotid arteries and we developed a new relation to model their active biaxial responses. These data and constitutive relations allow the first full comparison of circumferential and axial biomechanical behaviors between a muscular (basilar) and an elastic (carotid) artery from the same species. Our active model describes the responses by both types of vessels to four doses of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (1010M, 109M, 108M, and 107M) and predicts levels of smooth muscle cell activation associated with basal tone under specific in vitro testing conditions. These results advance our understanding of the biomechanics of intracranial and extracranial arteries, which is needed to understand better their differential responses to similar perturbations in hemodynamic loading.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Representative histological images of basilar (left) and carotid (right) arteries fixed in unloaded configurations, stained with H&E ((a) and (c)) and VVG ((b) and (d)), and viewed at 40x magnification.

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Figure 2

Representative basilar artery data at passive (×), basal (Δ), and four levels of active tone achieved by concentrations of ET-1: 10−10M(⋯), 10−9M(–⋅–), 10−8M(––), and 10−7M (—)

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Figure 3

Representative carotid artery data at passive (×), basal (Δ), and four levels of active tone achieved by concentrations of ET-1: 10−10M(⋯), 10−9M(–⋅–), 10−8M(––), and 10−7M (—)

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Figure 4

Representative passive basilar artery data (○) and fits (–) by the four-fiber family model

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Figure 5

Representative passive carotid artery data (○) and fits (–) by the four-fiber family model

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Figure 6

NLOM image slices (150×150 μm2) of an illustrative basilar (a) and carotid (b) artery. Basilar images (a) show collagen fiber alignment in the media, a transition area between media and adventitia, and the adventitia. Carotid images (b) show collagen fiber alignment in the inner and outer adventitia.

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Figure 7

Representative active basilar artery data (○) and fits (–) by the combined active and passive constitutive relations

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Figure 8

Representative active carotid artery data (○) and fits (–) by the combined active and passive constitutive relations

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