Cerebrovascular disease continues to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. There is, therefore, a pressing need to understand better the biomechanics of both intracranial arteries and the extracranial arteries that feed these vessels. We used a validated four-fiber family constitutive relation to model passive biaxial stress-stretch behaviors of basilar and common carotid arteries and we developed a new relation to model their active biaxial responses. These data and constitutive relations allow the first full comparison of circumferential and axial biomechanical behaviors between a muscular (basilar) and an elastic (carotid) artery from the same species. Our active model describes the responses by both types of vessels to four doses of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (, , , and ) and predicts levels of smooth muscle cell activation associated with basal tone under specific in vitro testing conditions. These results advance our understanding of the biomechanics of intracranial and extracranial arteries, which is needed to understand better their differential responses to similar perturbations in hemodynamic loading.