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Research Papers

In Vivo Stress Analysis of a Pacing Lead From an Angiographic Sequence

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Liu, W. Yang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

J. Wang1

Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843jwang@tamu.edu

S. J. Chen

Department of Medicine/Cardiology, Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 133(4), 041004 (Mar 08, 2011) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003524 History: Received March 25, 2010; Revised January 17, 2011; Posted January 28, 2011; Published March 08, 2011; Online March 08, 2011

In this paper, a method is presented to analyze the mechanical stress distribution in a pacing lead based on a sequence of paired 2D angiographic images. The 3D positions and geometrical shapes of an implanted pacemaker lead throughout the cardiac cycle were generated using a previously validated 3D modeling technique. Based on the Frenet–Serret formulas, the kinematic property of the lead was derived and characterized. The distribution of curvature and twist angle per unit length in the pacing lead was calculated from a finite difference method, which enabled a rapid and effective computation of the mechanical stress in the pacing lead. The analytical solution of the helix deformation geometry was used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed numerical method, and an excellent agreement in curvature, twist angle, and stresses was achieved. As demonstrated in the example, the proposed technique can be used to analyze the complex movement and deformation of the implanted pacing lead in vivo. The information can facilitate the future development of pacing leads.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Two standard views of pacing lead at different viewing angles in one of patients: (a) projection acquired at the angle right anterior oblique (RAO) 30 deg and caudal (CAUD) 3.3 deg and (b) projection acquired at left anterior oblique (LAO) 30 deg and CAUD 2.4 deg

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Figure 2

Moving 3D pacing lead reconstructed from paired angiographic images acquired from end-diastole to end-systole: (a) projection acquired at the angle RAO 15.9 deg and cranial (CRAN) 15.2 deg and (b) projection acquired at the angle LAO 33.7 deg and CRAN 62.0 deg

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Figure 3

Frenet–Serret frame and geometrical illustration of κ and τ

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Figure 4

The relationship between the two defined coordinate systems

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Figure 5

Bending deformation of a wire

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Figure 6

A wire deformed into a helix

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Figure 16

von Mises stress in various locations (normalized lengths) in half of a heartbeat cycle

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Figure 7

Illustration of finite nodes in a helix for validation of finite difference method (unit: mm)

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Figure 15

Maximum von Mises stress distribution and its components: normal stress due to bending and shear stress due to torsion

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Figure 13

Comparison of five-point (dotted line) and ten-point (solid line) central moving average filtering: (a) curvature, (b) twist angle per unit length, and (c) maximum von Mises stress

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Figure 12

Maximum von Mises stress calculated from five-point central moving average of κ and τ

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Figure 11

Maximum von Mises stress plots

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Figure 14

Comparison of results derived from original (dotted line) and filtered (solid line) geometric data: (a) curvature, (b) twist angle per unit length, and (c) maximum von Mises stresses. The dotted and solid lines are indistinguishable.

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Figure 10

Twist angle per unit length plots

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Figure 9

Curvature plots at seven time instants

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Figure 8

Illustration of finite nodes in moving 3D pacing lead from end-diastole to end-systole for finite difference method (unit: mm)

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