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Research Papers

The Tolerance of the Frontal Bone to Blunt Impact

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph Cormier

 Biodynamic Research Corporation, San Antonio, TX 78249jcormier@brconline.com

Sarah Manoogian

 Biodynamic Research Corporation, San Antonio, TX 78249smanoogian@brconline.com

Jill Bisplinghoff

Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061bisplinj@vt.edu

Steve Rowson

Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061srowson@vt.edu

Anthony Santago

Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061asantago@vt.edu

Craig McNally

Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061cmcnally@vt.edu

Stefan Duma

Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061duma@vt.edu

John Bolte

Injury Biomechanics Research Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210bolte.6@osu.edu

J Biomech Eng 133(2), 021004 (Jan 24, 2011) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003312 History: Received February 26, 2010; Revised December 10, 2010; Posted December 22, 2010; Published January 24, 2011; Online January 24, 2011

The current understanding of the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact is limited. Previous studies have utilized vastly different methods, which limits the use of statistical analyses to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone. The purpose of this study is to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact. Acoustic emission sensors were used to provide a noncensored measure of the frontal bone tolerance and were essential due to the increase in impactor force after fracture onset. In this study, risk functions for fracture were developed using parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results of the statistical analyses suggest that a 50% risk of frontal bone fracture occurs at a force between 1885 N and 2405 N. Subjects that were found to have a frontal sinus present within the impacted region had a significantly higher risk of sustaining a fracture. There was no association between subject age and fracture force. The results of the current study suggest that utilizing peak force as an estimate of fracture tolerance will overestimate the force necessary to create a frontal bone fracture.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Frontal bone measurements taken using pretest CT images

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Figure 2

Schematic of test apparatus to be used in the current study

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Figure 3

Acoustic emission and impactor force during an impact resulting in a fracture

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Figure 4

Impactor displacement response from frontal bone impact (same test as Fig. 3)

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Figure 5

Response of frontal impact resulting in no fracture (contralateral to test in Fig. 3)

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Figure 6

Estimated peak frontal bone contact pressure as a function of impactor energy

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Figure 7

Frontal bone fracture force and corresponding frontal bone thickness and skin depth

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Figure 8

Frontal bone fracture force and subject age

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Figure 9

Risk functions for frontal bone fracture using parametric and nonparametric techniques

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Figure 10

CT image demonstrating frontal sinus of one subject used in the current study

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