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Research Papers

FSI Analysis of a Healthy and a Stenotic Human Trachea Under Impedance-Based Boundary Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Malvè

Group of Structural Mechanics and Materials Modeling, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, C/María de Luna s/n, E-50018 Zaragoza, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina , C/Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza, Spainmmalve@unizar.es

A. Pérez del Palomar, A. Mena

Group of Structural Mechanics and Materials Modeling, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, C/María de Luna s/n, E-50018 Zaragoza, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina , C/Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain

S. Chandra

Institute for Complex Engineered Systems, Carnegie Mellon University, 1205 Hamburg Hall, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

J. L. López-Villalobos, A. Ginel

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Avenida de Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013 Seville, Spain

E. A. Finol

Institute for Complex Engineered Systems , Carnegie Mellon University, 1205 Hamburg Hall, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

M. Doblaré

Group of Structural Mechanics and Materials Modeling, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, C/María de Luna s/n, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina , C/Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, E-50018 Zaragoza, Spain

J Biomech Eng 133(2), 021001 (Jan 05, 2011) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003130 History: Received June 07, 2010; Revised November 16, 2010; Posted November 29, 2010; Published January 05, 2011; Online January 05, 2011

In this work, a fluid-solid interaction (FSI) analysis of a healthy and a stenotic human trachea was studied to evaluate flow patterns, wall stresses, and deformations under physiological and pathological conditions. The two analyzed tracheal geometries, which include the first bifurcation after the carina, were obtained from computed tomography images of healthy and diseased patients, respectively. A finite element-based commercial software code was used to perform the simulations. The tracheal wall was modeled as a fiber reinforced hyperelastic solid material in which the anisotropy due to the orientation of the fibers was introduced. Impedance-based pressure waveforms were computed using a method developed for the cardiovascular system, where the resistance of the respiratory system was calculated taking into account the entire bronchial tree, modeled as binary fractal network. Intratracheal flow patterns and tracheal wall deformation were analyzed under different scenarios. The simulations show the possibility of predicting, with FSI computations, flow and wall behavior for healthy and pathological tracheas. The computational modeling procedure presented herein can be a useful tool capable of evaluating quantities that cannot be assessed in vivo, such as wall stresses, pressure drop, and flow patterns, and to derive parameters that could help clinical decisions and improve surgical outcomes.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Computational grids of the (a) healthy and (b) stenotic tracheas with the respective computational fluid (1) and solid (2) grids

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Figure 2

Axial velocity profiles through selected orthogonal tracheal sections for different mesh sizes at peak flow during inspiration

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Figure 3

Finite element model of the (a) healthy and (b) stenotic tracheas with their respective constitutive parts separately plotted (A denotes anterior part and P denotes posterior part)

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Figure 4

(a) Structured tree (adapted from Olufsen (37)), (b) airflow, (c) inlet velocity, and (d) computed pressure waveforms (healthy trachea up, stenotic trachea bottom)

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Figure 5

Projected 2D streamlines (in m/s) on frontal and lateral sections of the (a) healthy and (b) stenotic tracheas with respective pressure distributions (in cm H2O) at peak flow during inhalation

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Figure 6

Projected 2D streamlines (in m/s) at selected longitudinal sections of the (a) healthy and (c) stenotic tracheas with ((b) and (d)) respective velocity distributions at peak flow during inhalation

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Figure 7

Logarithmic circunferential strain of the (a) complete model and of the (b) cartilage rings of the healthy trachea at selected time points during inspiration. In (c), the deformed shape of the cartilage rings during inspiration is shown.

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Figure 8

Logarithmic circunferential strain (a) of the complete model and (b) of the cartilage rings of the stenotic trachea at selected time points during inspiration. In (c), the deformed shape of the cartilage rings during inspiration is shown.

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Figure 9

Comparison of the maximum principal stresses (in Pa) (a) (left) of the complete model and (a) (right) of the cartilage rings between healthy and stenotic trachea respectively, at peak flow during inspiration. In (b) the stress distribution of the stenotic region is shown.

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Figure 10

Comparison between FSI and CFD computations at peak flow during inspiration: (a) healthy trachea and (b) stenotic trachea

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Figure 11

Comparison between FSI and CFD vorticity magnitude (in s−1) at peak flow during inspiration (top: healthy trachea; bottom: stenotic trachea (frontal/lateral section))

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Figure 12

Contours of the turbulent kinetic energy in m2/s2 (left: healthy trachea; right: diseased trachea for each subfigure)

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