In this work, a fluid-solid interaction (FSI) analysis of a healthy and a stenotic human trachea was studied to evaluate flow patterns, wall stresses, and deformations under physiological and pathological conditions. The two analyzed tracheal geometries, which include the first bifurcation after the carina, were obtained from computed tomography images of healthy and diseased patients, respectively. A finite element-based commercial software code was used to perform the simulations. The tracheal wall was modeled as a fiber reinforced hyperelastic solid material in which the anisotropy due to the orientation of the fibers was introduced. Impedance-based pressure waveforms were computed using a method developed for the cardiovascular system, where the resistance of the respiratory system was calculated taking into account the entire bronchial tree, modeled as binary fractal network. Intratracheal flow patterns and tracheal wall deformation were analyzed under different scenarios. The simulations show the possibility of predicting, with FSI computations, flow and wall behavior for healthy and pathological tracheas. The computational modeling procedure presented herein can be a useful tool capable of evaluating quantities that cannot be assessed in vivo, such as wall stresses, pressure drop, and flow patterns, and to derive parameters that could help clinical decisions and improve surgical outcomes.