Mechanical Stimulation of Tissue Engineered Tendon Constructs: Effect of Scaffold Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
Victor S. Nirmalanandhan

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 2901 Campus Drive, 837 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0048nirmalvs@email.uc.edu

Matthew R. Dressler

Department of Engineering, Dordt College, 498 4th Avenue, Northeast Sioux Center, IA 51250dressler@dordt.edu

Jason T. Shearn

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Mail Location 0048, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0048shearnj@email.uc.edu

Natalia Juncosa-Melvin

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 2901 Campus Drive, 860 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0048juncosln@email.uc.edu

Marepalli Rao

Environmental Health-Genomics, University of Cincinnati, Kettering 106, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267marepalli.rao@uc.edu

Cynthia Gooch

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 2901 Campus Drive, 893 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0048goochc@uc.edu

Gino Bradica

 Kensey Nash Corporation, 55 East Uwchlan Avenue, Exton, PA 19341g.bradica@kenseynash.com

David L. Butler1

Director, Tissue Engineering and Biomechanics Laboratories, 840 Engineering Research Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0048david.butler@uc.edu


Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 129(6), 919-923 (Apr 24, 2007) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2800828 History: Received August 01, 2006; Revised April 24, 2007

Our group has shown that numerous factors can influence how tissue engineered tendon constructs respond to in vitro mechanical stimulation. Although one study showed that stimulating mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)–collagen sponge constructs significantly increased construct linear stiffness and repair biomechanics, a second study showed no such effect when a collagen gel replaced the sponge. While these results suggest that scaffold material impacts the response of MSCs to mechanical stimulation, a well-designed intra-animal study was needed to directly compare the effects of type-I collagen gel versus type-I collagen sponge in regulating MSC response to a mechanical stimulus. Eight constructs from each cell line (n=8 cell lines) were created in specially designed silicone dishes. Four constructs were created by seeding MSCs on a type-I bovine collagen sponge, and the other four were formed by seeding MSCs in a purified bovine collagen gel. In each dish, two cell-sponge and two cell-gel constructs from each line were then mechanically stimulated once every 5min to a peak strain of 2.4%, for 8hday for 2 weeks. The other dish remained in an incubator without stimulation for 2 weeks. After 14 days, all constructs were failed to determine mechanical properties. Mechanical stimulation significantly improved the linear stiffness (0.048±0.009 versus 0.015±0.004; mean±SEM (standard error of the mean ) N/mm) and linear modulus (0.016±0.004 versus 0.005±0.001; mean±SEM MPa) of cell-sponge constructs. However, the same stimulus produced no such improvement in cell-gel construct properties. These results confirm that collagen sponge rather than collagen gel facilitates how cells respond to a mechanical stimulus and may be the scaffold of choice in mechanical stimulation studies to produce functional tissue engineered structures.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Mechanical stimulation system. The system has five stations in an incubator (37°C, 95% RH, 5% CO2). Strain is induced in the CG constructs by stretching the deformable silicone dish.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Custom silicone dishes were created to deliver mechanical deformation to MSC-collagen constructs. Each silicon dish contains four wells with two posts. Constructs are created in these dishes and then placed into the mechanical stimulation system.




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