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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Joint/Whole Body

Reproduction of In Vivo Motion Using a Parallel Robot

[+] Author and Article Information
Ryan A. Howard

Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1rhoward@imvprojects.com

Joshua M. Rosvold

Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1jmrosvol@ucalgary.ca

Shon P. Darcy

Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1sdarcy@ucalgary.ca

David T. Corr

Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1corrd@rpi.edu

Nigel G. Shrive

Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1shrive@ucalgary.ca

Janet E. Tapper

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1janet.tapper@med.ucalgary.ca

Janet L. Ronsky

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1jlronsky@ucalgary.ca

Jillian E. Beveridge

Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1jill.beveridge@ucalgary.ca

Linda L. Marchuk

Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1marchuk@ucalgary.ca

Cyril B. Frank

Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, c/o Joint Injury and Arthritis Research Group, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1cfrank@ucalgary.ca

J Biomech Eng 129(5), 743-749 (May 01, 2007) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2768983 History: Received August 05, 2005; Revised May 01, 2007

Although alterations in knee joint loading resulting from injury have been shown to influence the development of osteoarthritis, actual in vivo loading conditions of the joint remain unknown. A method for determining in vivo ligament loads by reproducing joint specific in vivo kinematics using a robotic testing apparatus is described. The in vivo kinematics of the ovine stifle joint during walking were measured with 3D optical motion analysis using markers rigidly affixed to the tibia and femur. An additional independent single degree of freedom measuring device was also used to record a measure of motion. Following sacrifice, the joint was mounted in a robotic/universal force sensor test apparatus and referenced using a coordinate measuring machine. A parallel robot configuration was chosen over the conventional serial manipulator because of its greater accuracy and stiffness. Median normal gait kinematics were applied to the joint and the resulting accuracy compared. The mean error in reproduction as determined by the motion analysis system varied between 0.06mm and 0.67mm and 0.07deg and 0.74deg for the two individual tests. The mean error measured by the independent device was found to be 0.07mm and 0.83mm for the two experiments, respectively. This study demonstrates the ability of this system to reproduce in vivo kinematics of the ovine stifle joint in vitro. The importance of system stiffness is discussed to ensure accurate reproduction of joint motion.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Transducer assembly on the femoral post

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Figure 2

Cable fixing system and safety release on the tibial post

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Figure 3

Custom designed load floor and tibial fixation pot

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Figure 5

Robot global coordinates (RGCs)

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Figure 6

4×4 homogeneous transformation matrices describing the position of the FCS relative to the TCS, FCS relative to RCS

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Figure 7

Flowchart for robot end-effector path determination

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Figure 8

In vivo and in vitro joint motion

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Figure 9

Error in robot reproduction of in vivo motion

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Figure 10

In vivo and in vitro sensor readings

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Figure 11

Difference between in vivo and in vitro sensor readings

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Figure 4

Tibial fixation pot

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