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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Mixing and Modes of Mass Transfer in the Third Cerebral Ventricle: A Computational Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Vartan Kurtcuoglu

 Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Michaela Soellinger

Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Paul Summers

Department of Neuroradiology, Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK

Dimos Poulikakos1

 Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerlanddimos.poulikakos@ltnt.iet.mavt.ethz.ch

Peter Boesiger

Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 129(5), 695-702 (Feb 16, 2007) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2768376 History: Received June 13, 2006; Revised February 16, 2007

Anatomic, velocimetric, and brain motion MRI scans were combined with a computational fluid dynamics model to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mixing in the third cerebral ventricle of a healthy male adult. It was found that advection dominates over diffusion in most of the third ventricle. Three zones where diffusion plays an important role in the mixing process were identified. One of these zones, consisting of recessus infundibulus, recessus opticus and the adjacent regions up to commissura anterior, is likely to exist in the general population. We hypothesize that this zone may act as a buffer to flatten concentration peaks of pituitary gland hormones released into the CSF of the third ventricle. We further hypothesize that this zone may facilitate the communication between hypothalamus and the pituitary gland through the third ventricle cerebrospinal fluid by prolonging residence times of the communicated hormones.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Rendering of the computational domain: Third ventricle and aqueduct of Sylvius. Left: coronal view with positions of section planes A to C at the ECG R-peak as referred to in the Results section. The section planes are stationary and do not follow the feet-head motion of the computation domain with maximum amplitude of 0.25mm. Right: Sagittal view with positions of section planes D to H as referred to in the Results section.

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Figure 2

MRI tagging image of the midsagittal plane of a healthy volunteer’s brain acquired 50ms after the ECG R-peak. The characteristic checker board structure consists of saturation lines of magnetization that are tracked throughout the cardiac cycle to obtain brain motion.

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Figure 3

Visualization of the two main recirculation zones in the third ventricle using stream ribbons at t=0.25T, where T is the length of the cardiac cycle. The remainder of the jet emerging from the aqueduct of Sylvius can be seen at the center of the ventricle in between the recirculation zones.

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Figure 4

Median sagittal cut through the third ventricle. I: Areas portraying fast mixing. II: Areas with slow mixing. IIa: Region of anterior recessi including Ro, recessus opticus, and Ri, recessus infundibuli. IIb: Region above adhesio interthalamica. IIc: Region of posterior recessi, including Rsp, recessus suprapinealis, and part of Rp, recessus pinealis. Pt: Pituitary gland (hypophysis), Pn: pineal gland (epiphysis), Co: commissura anterior.

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Figure 5

Contours of volume fraction of CSF entering from the lateral ventricles (lv-CSF) in the midsagittal plane of the third ventricle at the ECG R-peak of several cardiac cycles. a: Anterior, p: Posterior, h: Head and f: Feet. Note the exponential scaling of the legend.

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Figure 6

Contours of lv-CSF volume fraction at the ECG R-peak of several cardiac cycles. Top row: Axial slice through the third ventricle in position C as outlined in Fig. 3. Bottom row: Axial slice in position B. a: Anterior, p: Posterior, l: Left and r: Right. Note the exponential scaling of the legend.

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Figure 7

Left axis, red curve: average lv-CSF volume fraction in zone I as defined in Fig. 1. Right axis: Portion of zone I with lv-CSF volume fraction greater than c, where c=0.05 (blue curve), c=0.1 (green curve) and c=0.25 (black curve).

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Figure 8

Contours of lv-CSF volume fraction in the midsagittal plane of the third ventricle during one cardiac cycle after 15 periods. t: Time, where t=0T corresponds to the ECG R-peak, T: Length of the cardiac cycle, a: Anterior, p: Posterior, h: Head and f: Feet.

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Figure 9

Contours of lv-CSF volume fraction during one cardiac cycle after 15 periods. Top row: Axial slice through the third ventricle in position C as shown in Fig. 3. Bottom row: Axial slice in position B. As the section planes at B and C do not follow the feet-head motion of the domain (maximum amplitude 0.25mm), slight variations in the geometry of the slices can be observed. t: Time, where t=0T corresponds to the ECG R-peak, T: Length of the cardiac cycle, a: Anterior, p: Posterior, l: Left and r: Right.

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