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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Bone/Orthopedic

Effects of Thresholding Techniques on μCT-Based Finite Element Models of Trabecular Bone

[+] Author and Article Information
Chi Hyun Kim1

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maejiri, Wonju, Kangwon Do, Koreachihyun@yonsei.ac.kr

Henry Zhang, George Mikhail, X. Edward Guo

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

Dietrich von Stechow, Ralph Müller

 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215

Han Sung Kim

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maejiri, Wonju, Kangwon Do, Korea

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 129(4), 481-486 (Dec 20, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2746368 History: Received October 19, 2005; Revised December 20, 2006

Microimaging based finite element analysis is widely used to predict the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The choice of thresholding technique, a necessary step in converting grayscale images to finite element models, can significantly influence the predicted bone volume fraction and mechanical properties. Therefore, we investigated the effects of thresholding techniques on microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) based finite element models of trabecular bone. Three types of thresholding techniques were applied to 16-bit micro-CT images of trabecular bone to create three different models per specimen. Bone volume fractions and apparent moduli were predicted and compared to experimental results. In addition, trabecular tissue mechanical parameters and morphological parameters were compared among different models. Our findings suggest that predictions of apparent mechanical properties and structural properties agree well with experimental measurements regardless of the choice of thresholding methods or the format of micro-CT images.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 6

Histogram of the distribution of strain energy density at the tissue level. Results of all 17 specimens are included in the histogram.

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Figure 5

Histograms of the distribution of principal stress components at the tissue level after different types of thresholding. Results of all 17 specimens are included in each histogram (PS1>PS2>PS3).

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Figure 4

Histograms of the distribution of principal strain components at the tissue level after different types of thresholding. Results of all 17 specimens are included in each histogram (PE1>PE2>PE3).

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Figure 3

(a) BVF after different types of thresholding correlated to BVF from density measurements. (b) Apparent modulus predicted by models after different types of thresholding correlated to apparent modulus from mechanical testing.

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Figure 2

Typical slice of a 3D μCT image of bovine trabecular bone before and after three different types of thresholding. Each thresholding technique results in images with microstructural differences (shown inside circle).

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Figure 1

(a) Histogram of a typical 16-bit 3D μCT image of bovine trabecular bone. The left peak represents background voxels, whereas the right peak represents bone voxels. The voxels in between these two peaks are ambiguous as they may represent bone or background voxels. (b) Histogram of the same 16-bit 3D μCT image of bovine trabecular bone after three types of thresholding: global, matched global, and adaptive. Depending on the choice of thresholding technique, identical voxels may be assigned to bone or background.

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