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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Numerical Assessment of Thermal Response Associated With In Vivo Skin Electroporation: The Importance of the Composite Skin model

[+] Author and Article Information
S. M. Becker

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695smbecker@unity.ncsu.edu

A. V. Kuznetsov

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695

J Biomech Eng 129(3), 330-340 (Oct 06, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2720910 History: Received January 09, 2006; Revised October 06, 2006

Electroporation is an approach used to enhance transdermal transport of large molecules in which the skin is exposed to a series of electric pulses. The structure of the transport inhibiting outer layer, the stratum corneum, is temporarily destabilized due to the development of microscopic pores. Consequently agents that are ordinarily unable to pass into the skin are able to pass through this outer barrier. Of possible concern when exposing biological tissue to an electric field is thermal tissue damage associated with Joule heating. This paper shows the importance of using a composite model in calculating the electrical and thermal effects associated with skin electroporation. A three-dimensional transient finite-volume model of in vivo skin electroporation is developed to emphasize the importance of representing the skin’s composite layers and to illustrate the underlying relationships between the physical parameters of the composite makeup of the skin and resulting thermal damage potential.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

Composite skin model

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Figure 3

Comparisons between numerical code and analytic solution (one-dimensional). (a) Steady state temperature (°C), in which the domain represents vertical depth below the skin’s surface. (b) Electric (potential and heating) in which the domain represents a horizontal line between the electrodes. Dotted lines separate composite layers.

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Figure 5

Composite tissue property effects on electrical solution during electroporation pulse: comparison effects between three representative SC conductivities. Solution shown lies between the electrodes at target region vertical and axial midpoints (y=0mm, z=5mm). Dotted lines denote interfaces between composite regions, long dashed lines denote skin-electrode interfaces.

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Figure 6

Electroporation pulse associated composite temperature rise versus SC electrical conductivity. Representative electroporation pulse is of 150ms duration with an applied voltage of 400V.

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Figure 10

Blood vessel effects on thermal damage EM43 (minutes) evaluated at t=300s (after last pulse cycle). (a) Homogenous tissue model: the x-y plane at the axial midpoint of the target region (z=5mm). (b) Homogenous tissue model. (c) Composite tissue model: the x-z plane at the vertical midpoint of the target region (y=0mm). Electroporation consisted of five pulses 150ms in duration spaced 1s apart with an applied voltage of 400V. Dashed line represents target region boundary, dotted lines represent composite tissue interfaces, and dash-dot-dotted line represents position of blood vessel outer radius.

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Figure 4

Joule heat solution (QJW∕m3) in the x-y plane at the axial midpoint of the target region (z=5mm) during an electroporation pulse with an applied potential of 400V using SC conductivity value (σSC=0.01S∕m). Dotted lines separate composite layers. Dashed line denotes target region boundary.

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Figure 7

Composite model post-electroporation transient thermal solution (°C) at the target region axial midpoint (z=5mm). Electroporation consisted of five pulses of 150ms duration spaced 1s apart with an applied voltage of 400V. Dotted lines denote interfaces between composite regions, dashed lines denote the target region boundary, and times shown begin after application of the last pulse cycle.

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Figure 8

Composite model post-electroporation transient thermal solution (°C) at the target region axial midpoint (z=5mm). Electroporation consisted of five pulses of 150ms duration spaced 1s apart with an applied voltage of 400V. Dotted lines denote interfaces between composite regions, dashed lines denote the target region boundary, and times shown begin after application of the last pulse cycle.

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Figure 9

Thermal damage comparisons: EM43 (minutes) evaluated at t=300s (after last pulse cycle) along the x-y plane at the axial midpoint of the target region (z=5mm). Electroporation consisted of five pulses 150ms in duration spaced 1s apart with an applied voltage of 400V. Dashed line represents target region boundary, dotted lines represent composite tissue interfaces.

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