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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Deposition of Particles on Ocular Tissues and Formation of Krukenberg Spindle, Hyphema, and Hypopyon

[+] Author and Article Information
Satish Kumar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803

Sumanta Acharya1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803acharya@LSU.edu

Roger Beuerman

 LSU Eye Center, New Orleans, LA 70112

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 129(2), 174-186 (Sep 05, 2006) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2472380 History: Received December 29, 2004; Revised September 05, 2006

Eye diseases, such as Krukenberg’s spindle, hyphema, and hypopyon, are related to the deposition of specific particles such as pigmentary cells, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. These particles are circulated by the aqueous humor (AH) and tend to deposit in regions of low velocities or high resistance. In the present paper, numerical simulations are reported of the AH flow and particle transport, and the particle concentration predictions are qualitatively compared to clinical images. The particle concentration distributions provide an understanding of the likely sources of deposition and the origin of the deposited particles. Pigmentary cells are seen to concentrate in a vertical band on the corneal surface consistent with clinical observations of Krukenberg’s spindle. Leukocytes and erythrocytes are seen to collect at the bottom of the anterior chamber similar to the observations made for hypopyon and hyphema. These results confirm the potential of using numerical calculations in order to obtain a better understanding of the particle transport and deposition patterns in the anterior chamber of the eye.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 11

Vertical orientation (WBC): (a) particles released from the pupil surface, view from corneal surface; (b) particles released from the pupil surface, view from iris surface; (c) particles released from the iris surface, view from corneal surface; and (d) particles released from the iris surface, view from iris surface

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Figure 1

(a) KS as a vertical spindle on the corneal surface (25), (b) KS formation due to the accumulation of pigment particles at lower portion of the corneal surface (26), (c) a typical hyphema (26), and (d) hypopyon (sedimentation of leukocytes at the bottom of the anterior chamber) (26)

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Figure 10

Horizontal upward facing orientation (RBC): (a) particles released from the pupil surface, view from iris surface and (b) particles released from the iris surface, view from iris surface

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Figure 2

(a) Schematic of a Rabbit’s eye (from (29)), (b) geometrical model used for the simulation, (c) details of the anterior chamber (from (30)), (d) model of TM

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Figure 3

(a) Blocks of the topology and mesh in the model in vertical midplane and (b) velocity magnitude along the central axis of the anterior chamber for 300,000, 600,000, and 1000,000 hexahedral cells

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Figure 4

Streamlines and contours of velocity magnitude: (a) horizontal orientation, vertical midplane; and (b) vertical orientation, vertical midplane. ΔT=2°C, pore diameter=0.6μ

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Figure 5

Particle trajectories and residence times for pigmentary granules: (a) particles released from the pupil surface located on the circumference of radius 1.5mm, vertical orientation; (b) particles released from the iris surface located on the circumference of radius 3.8mm, vertical orientation; (c) particles released from the pupil surface located on the circumference of radius 1.5mm, horizontal orientation; and (d) particles released from the iris surface located on the circumference of radius 3.8mm, horizontal orientation

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Figure 6

Particle trajectories and residence time for erythrocytes: (a) particles released from the pupil surface located on the circumference of radius 1.5mm, vertical orientation; (b) particles released from the iris surface located on the circumference of radius 3.8mm, vertical orientation, (c) particle released from the center of the anterior chamber, vertical orientation; (d) particles released from the pupil surface located on the circumference of radius 1.5mm, horizontal orientation; and (e) particles released from the iris surface located on the circumference of radius 3.8mm (inner trajectory) and 4.4mm (outer trajectory), horizontal orientation

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Figure 7

Vertical orientation (pigment particles): (a) particles released from the pupil surface, view from corneal surface; (b) particles released from the pupil surface, view from iris surface; (c) particles released from the iris surface, view from corneal surface; and (d) particles released from the iris surface, view from iris surface

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Figure 8

Horizontal upward facing orientation (pigment particles): (a) particles released from the pupil surface, view from corneal surface; (b) particles released from the pupil surface, view from iris surface; (c) particles released from the iris surface, view from corneal surface; and (d) particles released from the iris surface, view from iris surface

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Figure 9

Vertical orientation (RBC): (a) particles released from the pupil surface, view from corneal surface; (b) particles released from the pupil surface, view from iris surface; (c) particles released from the iris surface, view from corneal surface; (d) particles released from the iris surface, view from iris surface; and (e) corneal staining (showed using the same fluorescein dye) (41)

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