Improving our understanding of the design requirements of biologically derived collagenous scaffolds is necessary for their effective use in tissue reconstruction. In the present study, the collagen fiber kinematics of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) was quantified using small angle light scattering (SALS) while the specimen was subjected to prescribed uniaxial or biaxial strain paths. A modified biaxial stretching device based on Billiar and Sacks (J. Biomech., 30, pp. 753–7, 1997) was used, with a real-time analysis of the fiber kinematics made possible due to the natural translucency of SIS. Results indicated that the angular distribution of collagen fibers in specimens subjected to 10% equibiaxial strain was not significantly different from the initial unloaded condition, regardless of the loading path . Both 10% strip biaxial stretch and uniaxial stretches of greater than 5% in the preferred fiber direction led to an increase in the collagen fiber alignment along the same direction, while 10% strip biaxial stretch in the cross preferred fiber direction led to a broadening of the distribution. While an affine deformation model accurately predicted the experimental findings for a biaxial strain state, uniaxial stretch paths were not accurately predicted. Nonaffine structural models will be necessary to fully predict the fiber kinematics under large uniaxial strains in SIS.