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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

# Development of Reformative Surgery Method Using Partial Freezing for the Liver

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Takahashi

Deptartment of Mechanical Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577, Japantakahashi@eng.ehime-u.ac.jp

S. Nomura, S. Shibata, X. Zhu, N. Okabe

Deptartment of Mechanical Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577, Japan

M. Jindai

Department of Systems Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama, 719-1197, Japan

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawachi

The 2nd Department of Surgery, Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime, 791-0295, Japan

J Biomech Eng 128(6), 862-866 (Feb 13, 2006) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2244577 History: Received February 05, 2004; Revised February 13, 2006

## Abstract

To minimize surgical stresses including blood loss and operation time to the patients during hepatic resection, we studied the feasibility of a combination of a partial liver freezing technique and shape-memory alloy, which also enables a free-designed resection curve. In this surgical procedure, the region surrounding a tumor in the liver is frozen to excise and prevent hemorrhage. The liver was frozen by a Peltier module. The effects of cooling rate and freezing temperature on the excision force that arise between a scalpel and the liver are carried out experimentally as a basic research for partial freezing surgical procedures. A porcine liver was used as a liver sample. The physical properties were estimated by using the finite element method based on the heat transfer characteristics of the liver. Isolation of the liver was conducted using a scalpel attached to the end-effector of a 3 degrees of freedom robot. In the experiments, the minimum excision force was obtained at a temperature between $272K$ and $275K$; therefore, it is preferable that the liver be excised within this temperature range. Lowering of the cooling rate decreases the excision force even if the temperature of the liver remains unchanged. The lower the temperature of the liver is, the larger the increment rate of excision force is with regard to the cooling rate.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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## Figures

Figure 9

Relationship between excision resistance and cooling rate at each temperature. (a) Excision temperature Te=271.5K, (b)Te=271K, (c)Te=270.5K, and (d)Te=270K.

Figure 8

Cooling rate of the liver by a Peltier module

Figure 7

Relationship between excision force and temperature of the liver

Figure 6

Excision force tests of the liver at several freezing conditions. (a) Excision force testing method. (b) Excision test using robot system.

Figure 5

Analysis model and comparison of experimental and analysis data

Figure 4

Relationship between temperature and cooling time of the liver

Figure 3

Experimental system for heat transfer test of the liver. (a) Cooling system. (b) Structure of cooling needle. It has a coaxial design: the internal pipe leads the liquid nitrogen to the tip of the needle. As it flows past the outer pipe, the nitrogen, now in gaseous form, cools it before exiting to the atmosphere.

Figure 2

Schematic illustration of new surgery technique for the liver cancer

Figure 1

Excision line of the liver cancer. (a) Past excision line. (b) The optimal excision curve.

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