Stress Relaxation of Porcine Gluteus Muscle Subjected to Sudden Transverse Deformation as Related to Pressure Sore Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Avital Palevski, Ittai Glaich, Sigal Portnoy, Eran Linder-Ganz

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

Amit Gefen

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israelgefen@eng.tau.ac.il

J Biomech Eng 128(5), 782-787 (Apr 09, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2264395 History: Received July 29, 2005; Revised April 09, 2006

Computational studies of deep pressure sores (DPS) in skeletal muscles require information on viscoelastic constitutive behavior of muscles, particularly when muscles are loaded transversally as during bone-muscle interaction in sitting and lying immobilized patients. In this study, we measured transient shear moduli G(t) of fresh porcine muscles in vitro using the indentation method. We employed a custom-made pneumatic device that allowed rapid (2000mms)4mm indentations. We tested 8 gluteus muscles, harvested from 5 adult pigs. Each muscle was indented transversally (perpendicularly to the direction of fibers) at 3 different sites, 7 times per site, to obtain nonpreconditioned (NPC) and preconditioned (PC) G(t) data. Short-term (GS) and long-term (GL) shear moduli were obtained directly from experiments. We further fitted measured G(t) data to a biexponential equation G(t)=G1exp(tτ1)+G2exp(tτ2)+G, which provided good fit, visually and in terms of the correlation coefficients. Typically, plateau of the stress relaxation curves (defined as 10% difference from final GL) was evident 20s after indentation. Short-term shear moduli GS (mean NPC: 8509Pa, PC: 5711Pa) were greater than long-term moduli GL (NPC: 609Pa, PC: 807Pa) by about an order of magnitude. Statistical analysis of parameters showed that only G2 was affected by preconditioning, while GL, GS, G, τ1, τ2, and G1 properties were unaffected. Since DPS develop over time scales of minutes to hours, but most stress relaxation occurs within 20s, the most relevant property for computational modeling is GL (mean 700Pa), which is, conveniently, unaffected by preconditioning.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

The pneumatic indentation testing device.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Representative transient shear modulus G(t) data obtained for in vitro nonpreconditioned (NPC, dark gray) and preconditioned (PC, seventh indentation run, light gray) indentations of porcine gluteus medius muscle. Lines show biexponential curve fitting (Eq. 2) to the NPC (thin line) and PC (thick line) experimental data. The first 0.8s of the stress relaxation are magnified in the central plot to show the transient response. The first 0.05s are magnified in the top right plot to show the ramp loading phase.



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