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TECHNICAL BRIEFS

Effect of Assumed Stiffness and Mass Density on the Impact Response of the Human Chest Using a Three-Dimensional FE Model of the Human Body

[+] Author and Article Information
Hideyuki Kimpara1

TOYOTA Central R&D Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192, Japanh-kimpara@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp

Masami Iwamoto, Isao Watanabe, Kazuo Miki

TOYOTA Central R&D Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192, Japan

Jong B. Lee, King H. Yang, Albert I. King

Bioengineering Center,  Wayne State University, 818 West Hancock, Detroit, MI 48201

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 128(5), 772-776 (Apr 19, 2006) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2264394 History: Received November 22, 2004; Revised April 19, 2006

Abstract

The mass density, Young’s modulus $(E)$, tangent modulus $(Et)$, and yield stress $(σy)$ of the human ribs, sternum, internal organs, and muscles play important roles when determining impact responses of the chest associated with pendulum impact. A series of parametric studies was conducted using a commercially available three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) of the whole human body, to determine the effect of changing these material properties on the predicted impact force, chest deflection, and the number of rib fractures and fractured ribs. Results from this parametric study indicate that the initial chest apparent stiffness was mainly influenced by the stiffness and mass density of the superficial muscles covering the torso. The number of rib fractures and fractured ribs was primarily determined by the stiffness of the ribcage. Similarly, the stiffness of the ribcage and internal organs contributed to the maximum chest deflection in frontal impact, while the maximum chest deflection for lateral impact was mainly affected by the stiffness of the ribcage. Additionally, the total mass of the whole chest had a moderately effect on the number of rib fractures.

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Figures

Figure 1

An oblique view of the complete THUMS-AM50

Figure 2

Description of elastic-plastic material properties of the ribs and sternum. (a) Rib cortical bone; (b) sternum cortical bone; (c) spongy bone.

Figure 3

Stress-strain characteristics defining the material properties of the thorax and the abdomen. (a) Thoracic viscera; (b) upper abdomen; (c) lower abdomen.

Figure 4

Chest force-deflection responses predicted by the baseline model. The short dashed gray lines show the upper and lower bounds of the corridors obtained from cadaveric pendulum tests. The long-dashed line represents the initial apparent stiffness based on linear regression. (a) Frontal impact; (b) lateral.

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