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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Laminar Airflow and Nanoparticle or Vapor Deposition in a Human Nasal Cavity Model

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Shi, Z. Zhang

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910

C. Kleinstreuer1

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910ck@eos.ncsu.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 128(5), 697-706 (Mar 06, 2006) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2244574 History: Received May 25, 2005; Revised March 06, 2006

The transport and deposition of nanoparticles, i.e., dp=12nm, or equivalent vapors, in the human nasal cavities is of interest to engineers, scientists, air-pollution regulators, and healthcare officials alike. Tiny ultrafine particles, i.e., dp5nm, are of special interest because they are most rapidly absorbed and hence have an elevated toxic or therapeutic impact when compared to larger particles. Assuming transient laminar 3-D incompressible flow in a representative human nasal cavity, the cyclic airflow pattern as well as local and overall nanoparticle depositions were computationally simulated and analyzed. The focus was on transient effects during inhalation/exhalation as compared to the steady-state assumption typically invoked. Then, an equation for a matching steady-state inhalation flow rate was developed that generates the same deposition results as cyclic inhalation. Of special interest is the olfactory region where the narrow channel surfaces receive only about one-half of a percent of the inhaled nanoparticles because the airflow bypasses these recesses located in the superior-most portions in the geometrically complex nasal cavities.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Anatomy of human nasal cavity

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Figure 2

Geometric model and ICEM CFD grid generation. (a) Original MRI data. (b) Constructing surface. (c) Smoothing surface. (d) ICEM CFD grid generation.

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Figure 3

Airflow fields at inspiratory airflow rate of 7.5L∕min during acceleration and deceleration phases

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Figure 4

Airflow fields at expiratory airflow rate of 7.5L∕min during acceleration and deceleration phases

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Figure 5

Nanoparticle transport at inspiratory airflow rate of 7.5L∕min during acceleration phase, deceleration phase, and steady state

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Figure 6

Nanoparticle deposition patterns at inspiratory airflow rate of 7.5L∕min during (a) acceleration phase, (b) deceleration phase, and (c) steady state

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Figure 7

Nanoparticle deposition efficiency during cyclic breathing for (a)dp=1nm and (b)dp=2nm

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