Shoulder motion is complex and significant research efforts have focused on measuring glenohumeral joint motion. Unfortunately, conventional motion measurement techniques are unable to measure glenohumeral joint kinematics during dynamic shoulder motion to clinically significant levels of accuracy. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a new model-based tracking technique for measuring three-dimensional, in vivo glenohumeral joint kinematics. We have developed a model-based tracking technique for accurately measuring in vivo joint motion from biplane radiographic images that tracks the position of bones based on their three-dimensional shape and texture. To validate this technique, we implanted tantalum beads into the humerus and scapula of both shoulders from three cadaver specimens and then recorded biplane radiographic images of the shoulder while manually moving each specimen’s arm. The position of the humerus and scapula were measured using the model-based tracking system and with a previously validated dynamic radiostereometric analysis (RSA) technique. Accuracy was reported in terms of measurement bias, measurement precision, and overall dynamic accuracy by comparing the model-based tracking results to the dynamic RSA results. The model-based tracking technique produced results that were in excellent agreement with the RSA technique. Measurement bias ranged from for the scapula and ranged from for the humerus. Dynamic measurement precision was better than for the scapula and for the humerus. Overall dynamic accuracy indicated that rms errors in any one direction were less than for the scapula and less than for the humerus. These errors correspond to rotational inaccuracies of approximately for the scapula and for the humerus. This new model-based tracking approach represents a non-invasive technique for accurately measuring dynamic glenohumeral joint motion under in vivo conditions. The model-based technique achieves accuracy levels that far surpass all previously reported non-invasive techniques for measuring in vivo glenohumeral joint motion. This technique is supported by a rigorous validation study that provides a realistic simulation of in vivo conditions and we fully expect to achieve these levels of accuracy with in vivo human testing. Future research will use this technique to analyze shoulder motion under a variety of testing conditions and to investigate the effects of conservative and surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears on dynamic joint stability.