The present study examines the viscoelastic behavior of cancellous bone at low strains and the effects of damage on this viscoelastic behavior. It provides experimental evidence of interaction between stress relaxation behavior and the effect of accumulated damage. The results suggest that damage is at least orthotropic in trabecular bone specimens under uniaxial loading. Simple linear models of viscoelasticity described the time-dependent stress-strain behavior at low strains before and after specimen damage, although better fits of these models were obtained prior to damage. Modeling the observed changes in relaxation times with damage accumulation appears necessary to successfully predict the post-damage viscoelastic response.