One of the essential causes of disk disorders is the pathologic change in the ligamentous attachments of the disk-condyle complex. In this paper, the response of the soft components of a human temporomandibular joint during mouth opening in healthy and two pathologic situations was studied. A three-dimensional finite element model of this joint comprising the bone components, the articular disk, and the temporomandibular ligaments was developed from a set of medical images. A fiber reinforced porohyperelastic model was used to simulate the behavior of the articular disk, taking into account the orientation of the fibers in each zone of this cartilage component. The condylar movements during jaw opening were introduced as the loading condition in the analysis. In the healthy joint, it was obtained that the highest stresses were located at the lateral part of the intermediate zone of the disk. In this case, the collateral ligaments were subject to high loads, since they are responsible of the attachment of the disk to the condyle during the movement of the mandible. Additionally, two pathologic situations were simulated: damage of the retrodiscal tissue and disruption of the lateral discal ligament. In both cases, the highest stresses moved to the posterior part of the disk since it was displaced in the anterior-medial direction. In conclusion, in the healthy joint, the highest stresses were located in the lateral zone of the disk where perforations are found most often in the clinical experience. On the other hand, the results obtained in the damaged joints suggested that the disruption of the disk attachments may cause an anterior displacement of the disk and instability of the joint.