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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Bone/Orthopedics

Effect of Loading Rate on the Compressive Mechanics of the Immature Baboon Cervical Spine

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul Z. Elias

Department of Bioengineering,  University of Washington, Box 357962, Seattle, WA 98195pelias@u.washington.edu

David J. Nuckley

Applied Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Washington, 501 Eastlake Avenue East, Suite 102, Seattle, WA 98109dnuckley@u.washington.edu

Randal P. Ching

Applied Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Washington, 501 Eastlake Avenue East, Suite 102, Seattle, WA 98109rc@u.washington.edu

J Biomech Eng 128(1), 18-23 (Sep 02, 2005) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2133767 History: Received August 09, 2004; Revised September 02, 2005

Thirty-four cervical spine segments were harvested from 12 juvenile male baboons and compressed to failure at displacement rates of 5, 50, 500, or 5000mms. Compressive stiffness, failure load, and failure displacement were measured for comparison across loading rate groups. Stiffness showed a significant concomitant increase with loading rate, increasing by 62% between rates of 5 and 5000mms. Failure load also demonstrated an increasing relationship with loading rate, while displacement at failure showed no rate dependence. These data may help in the development of improved pediatric automotive safety standards and more biofidelic physical and computational models.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Wiring and embedding of test segments. (a) Vertebra with lines indicating the orientation of wires passing through the vertebral body and lateral masses. (b) Wired segment embedded inferiorly in PMMA. (c) Segment fully prepared for testing.

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Figure 2

Experimental test apparatus. (a) Servohydraulic MTS capable of dynamic displacement inputs up to 10m∕s. (b) A C3–C5 segment attached to the MTS ram superiorly and to the six-axis load cell inferiorly.

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Figure 3

Representative load-displacement curve (C6–T1 at 50mm∕s)

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Figure 4

Stiffness as a function of displacement rate (p=0.0001)

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Figure 5

Failure load as a function of displacement rate (p=0.0091)

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Figure 6

Failure displacement as a function of displacement rate (p=0.1710)

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Figure 7

Postinjury radiographs. (a) Oc–C2 segment showing C1 burst fracture and separation of the C1–C2 facet. (b) C6–T1 segment exhibiting a C7 burst fracture with associated lateral mass fracture.

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