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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Flow in a Mechanical Bileaflet Heart Valve at Laminar and Near-Peak Systole Flow Rates: CFD Simulations and Experiments

[+] Author and Article Information
Liang Ge

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0335lg65@mail.gatech.edu

Hwa-Liang Leo, Ajit P. Yoganathan

Walter H. Coulter School of Biomedical Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0535

Fotis Sotiropoulos

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0335

J Biomech Eng 127(5), 782-797 (Mar 31, 2005) (16 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1993665 History: Received December 14, 2004; Revised March 31, 2005

Time-accurate, fully 3D numerical simulations and particle image velocity laboratory experiments are carried out for flow through a fully open bileaflet mechanical heart valve under steady (nonpulsatile) inflow conditions. Flows at two different Reynolds numbers, one in the laminar regime and the other turbulent (near-peak systole flow rate), are investigated. A direct numerical simulation is carried out for the laminar flow case while the turbulent flow is investigated with two different unsteady statistical turbulence modeling approaches, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached-eddy simulation (DES) approach. For both the laminar and turbulent cases the computed mean velocity profiles are in good overall agreement with the measurements. For the turbulent simulations, however, the comparisons with the measurements demonstrate clearly the superiority of the DES approach and underscore its potential as a powerful modeling tool of cardiovascular flows at physiological conditions. The study reveals numerous previously unknown features of the flow.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Numerical geometry of the mechanical heart valve: (a) overview of the three-dimensional geometry and grid on aorta wall and (b) plan view of the Chimera overset grid near the leaflets showing the grid topology

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Figure 2

Sketch of experimental geometry showing the location of the central measurement plane

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Figure 3

Time series of transverse velocity component v at a center point downstream of the valve obtained from numerical simulation (Re=750): (a) time history and (b) power spectrum distribution

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Figure 4

Contours of simulated instantaneous streamwise velocity at Re=750 showing the triple-jet structure and the asymmetry flow pattern in the wake of the valve (F1-F3 indicating comparison locations)

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Figure 5

Simulated vectors and streamwise velocity contours on z=1D (D is the diameter of the incoming pipe) plane (Re=750)

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Figure 6

Plan view of streamwise velocity contours (Re=750) at four cross-sectional planes (P1–P4) showing the axis switching of central orifice jet: from the horizontal axis (P1) to vertical axis (P3)

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Figure 7

Velocity profile comparisons with experimental measurements (———numerical simulations 엯 experimental measurements) (see Fig. 4 for comparison locations)

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Figure 8

Instantaneous vorticity contours (ωx) on x=0 plane

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Figure 9

Instantaneous vorticity contours (ωy) on y=0 plane

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Figure 10

Two-dimensional limiting streamtraces on x=0 plane showing the drastically different flow patterns captured by the two different turbulence modeling approaches: (a) a single, steady vortex by URANS and (b) multiple, dynamic vortical structures appeared in the sinus recirculation zone by DES

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Figure 11

Two-dimensional streamlines obtained from the measured instantaneous flow field at three different time instants

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Figure 12

Limiting streamtraces near sinus wall of DES solution (shades showing the contours of projected velocity)

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Figure 13

(a) Time history of u and (b) the corresponding power spectrum of URANS solutions [Re=6000, see Fig. 1 for locations of points A and B]

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Figure 14

(a) Time history of u and (b) the corresponding power spectrum of DES solutions [Re=6000, see Fig. 1 for locations of points A and B]

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Figure 15

Instantaneous cross-sectional secondary flow patterns of URANS solution on z=1D plane (Re=6000)

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Figure 16

Instantaneous cross-sectional secondary flow patterns of DES solution on z=1D plane (Re=6000)

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Figure 17

Time-averaged streamwise velocity contours (W∕U0) on x=0 plane: (a) URANS and (b) DES

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Figure 18

Cross-sectional flow pattern of the time-averaged flow field on z=1D plane (URANS)

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Figure 19

Cross-sectional flow pattern of the time-averaged flow field on z=1D plane (DES)

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Figure 20

Streamwise velocity profile (Re=6000) comparisons between DES (solid line), URANS (dashed line), and experimental measurements (circle). See Fig. 4 for comparison locations (F1-F3).

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Figure 21

Modeled Reynolds stress ρv′wm′¯ on x=0 plane

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Figure 22

Resolved Reynolds stress ρv′w′¯ on x=0 plane

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Figure 23

Resolved Reynolds stress ρw′w′¯ on x=0 plane

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