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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Fluid Flow Structure in Arterial Bypass Anastomosis

[+] Author and Article Information
C. M. Su

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,  University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 and  Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,  National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC

D. Lee1

 Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,  National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC

R. Tran-Son-Tay, W. Shyy

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,  University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

1

Corresponding author.

J Biomech Eng 127(4), 611-618 (Feb 15, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1934056 History: Received April 20, 2004; Revised February 15, 2005

The fluid flow through a stenosed artery and its bypass graft in an anastomosis can substantially influence the outcome of bypass surgery. To help improve our understanding of this and related issues, the steady Navier-Stokes flows are computed in an idealized arterial bypass system with partially occluded host artery. Both the residual flow issued from the stenosis—which is potentially important at an earlier stage after grafting—and the complex flow structure induced by the bypass graft are investigated. Seven geometric models, including symmetric and asymmetric stenoses in the host artery, and two major aspects of the bypass system, namely, the effects of area reduction and stenosis asymmetry, are considered. By analyzing the flow characteristics in these configurations, it is found that (1) substantial area reduction leads to flow recirculation in both upstream and downstream of the stenosis and in the host artery near the toe, while diminishes the recirculation zone in the bypass graft near the bifurcation junction, (2) the asymmetry and position of the stenosis can affect the location and size of these recirculation zones, and (3) the curvature of the bypass graft can modify the fluid flow structure in the entire bypass system.

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Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The configuration of the bypass system (geometric model C75)

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Figure 2

Geometry of an asymmetric stenosis. (a) 3D mesh; (b) cross-sectional view; the cross-sectional contours are at equal axial interval of 0.1 tube radius.

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Figure 3

Comparison of the axial velocity profiles with Huang (23) for Re=500

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Figure 4

Effects of area reduction—(a) Velocity profiles along the midsagittal plane in the different models. Velocities are normalized by the mean inlet velocity. A dimensionless velocity scale with a value of 3 is shown on the top right corner. (b) Streamlines in the midsagittal plane. As the area reduction increases, flow recirculation near the stenosis, and down-wash effect near the distal anastomosis become more pronounced.

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Figure 5

Effects of area reduction—Axial iso-velocity contours for the four cross sections outlined in Fig. 4. Velocities are normalized by the mean inlet velocity. The contouring increment in each subframe is specified at the lower-right corner.

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Figure 6

Effects of area reduction—Three-dimensional view of the recirculation zones in the different models

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Figure 7

Effects of stenosis asymmetry and position—(a) Velocity profiles along the midsagittal plane in the different models. Velocities are normalized by the mean inlet velocity. A dimensionless velocity scale with a value of 3 is shown on the top right corner. (b) Streamlines in the midsagittal plane. The down-wash effect on the host artery floor near the distal anastomosis can clearly be seen in A-B.

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Figure 8

Effects of stenosis asymmetry and position—Axial iso-velocity contours for the four cross sections outlined in Fig. 7. Velocities are normalized by the mean inlet velocity. The contouring increment in each sub-frame is specified at the lower-right corner.

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Figure 9

Effects of stenosis asymmetry and position—Three-dimensional view of the recirculation zones in the different models

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Figure 10

Effects of area reduction—Three-dimensional wall shear stress (WSS) distribution in the different models

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Figure 11

Effects of area reduction—Two-dimensional WSS map of the host artery

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Figure 12

Effects of stenosis asymmetry and position—Three-dimensional wall shear stress (WSS) distribution in the different models

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Figure 14

Two-dimensional WSS map of the bypass graft for selected models

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Figure 13

Effects of stenosis asymmetry and position—Two-dimensional WSS map of the host artery

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