Damage accumulation plays a key role in weakening bones prior to complete fracture and in stimulating bone remodeling. The goal of this study was to characterize the degradation in the mechanical properties of cortical bone following a compressive overload. Longitudinally oriented, low-aspect ratio specimens of bovine cortical bone were mechanically tested using an overload-hold-reload protocol. No modulus reductions greater than 5% were observed following overload magnitudes less than 0.73% strain. For each specimen, changes in strength and Poisson’s ratio were greater than that in modulus by 10.8- and 26.6-fold, respectively, indicating that, for the specimen configuration used in this study, longitudinal elastic modulus is one of the least sensitive properties to a compressive overload. Residual strains were also proportionately greater by 6.4-fold in the transverse than axial direction. These results suggest that efforts to relate microcrack density and morphology to changes in compressive mechanical properties of cortical bone may benefit from considering alternative parameters to modulus reductions.