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TECHNICAL BRIEFS

Use of Virtual, Interactive, Musculoskeletal System (VIMS) in Modeling and Analysis of Shoulder Throwing Activity

[+] Author and Article Information
Hwai-Ting Lin

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery,  Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, and Institute of Biomedical Engineering,  National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Yasuo Nakamura

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery,  Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205

Fong-Chin Su

Institute of Biomedical Engineering,  National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Jun Hashimoto, Katsuya Nobuhara

 Institute of Biomechanics, Nobuhara Hospital, Tatsuno, Hyogo, Japan

Edmund Y. Chao1

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery,  Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205eyschao@yahoo.com

1

Corresponding author: Edmund Y. S. Chao, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Room 235, Ross Research Building, Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205. Phone: (410) 502-6416; fax: (410) 502-6414.

J Biomech Eng 127(3), 525-530 (Jan 01, 2005) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1894387 History: Received July 04, 2003; Revised January 01, 2005

Our purpose in this study was to apply the virtual, interactive, musculoskeletal system (VIMS) software for modeling and biomechanical analysis of the glenohumeral joint during a baseball pitching activity. The skeletal model was from VIMS library and muscle fiber attachment sites were derived from the visible human dataset. The muscular moment arms and function changes are mainly due to the large humeral motion involved during baseball pitching. The graphic animation of the anatomic system using VIMS software is an effective tool to model and visualize the complex anatomical structure of the shoulder for biomechanical analysis.

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Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Resultant muscle moment arms and moment arms about the three reference axes fixed to the humerus. Only the main muscle and branch data are illustrated here. Phases I, II, III, IV represent the “early cocking,” the “late cocking,” the “acceleration,” and the “follow-through” phases, respectively. (a) The resultant muscle moment arms. (b) “Flex/Ext” represents the flexion/extension moment arm with respect to the y axis. (c) “Abd/Add” represents the abduction/adduction moment arm about the x axis. (d) “Int/Ext” represents the internal/external rotation moment arm about the z axis.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

(a) The three shoulder joint rotations defined by the two-axes Eulerian angle system during baseball pitching motion. Ant/Pos represents anterior/posterior rotation about the z axis defining the plane of elevation. Elev/Dep represents elevation/depression about the x′ axis. Int/Ext represents internal/external rotation about the z″ axis. (b) The three scapula rotations in reference to a locally fixed coordinate axes to the scapula (16). “Lat/Med” represents lateral/medial rotation. “Ret/Pro” represents retraction/protraction. “Back/For” represents backward/forward tilt. Phases I, II, III, IV represent the “early cocking,” the “late cocking,” the “acceleration,” and the “follow-through” phases, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

The entire baseball pitching cycle is divided into five phases: the “wind up;” the “early cocking,” the “late cocking,” the “acceleration,” and the “follow-through” phases. The junction between early and late cocking phases defines the time point of foot contact, the late cocking and the acceleration phases mark the time point of maximum shoulder external rotation, and the connection between the acceleration and the follow-through phases defines the key time point of ball release. The surface markers used to define the local reference coordinate systems (C.S.) for the pitching hand at the wrist, forearm at the elbow, upper arm at the shoulder, the trunk at the sternum and the pelvis at the lumbarsacral junction during baseball pitching. This multibody system above the pelvis including the entire pitching arm was used to facilitate kinematic analysis which were shown together with the respective coordinate axes in the insert figure.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

The functional flow chart in application VIMS software for biomechanical analysis of a human shoulder in baseball pitching. Applying VIMS-tool incorporated pitching kinematics data and the graphic model from VIMS-model software to develop a graphic-based biomechanical analysis model in study baseball pitching in the shoulder. Joint motion, kinetics results, muscle moment arm, pitching motion animation, muscle forces and joint constraint forces could be quantified.

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