Accurate constitutive models are required to gain further insight into the mechanical behavior of cardiovascular tissues. In this study, a structural constitutive framework for cardiovascular tissues is introduced that accounts for the angular distribution of collagen fibers. To demonstrate its capabilities, the model is applied to study the biaxial behavior of the arterial wall and the aortic valve. The pressure–radius relationships of the arterial wall accurately describe experimentally observed sigma-shaped curves. In addition, the nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties of the aortic valve can be analyzed with the proposed model. We expect that the current model offers strong possibilities to further investigate the complex mechanical behavior of cardiovascular tissues, including their response to mechanical stimuli.