A comprehensive computational framework to simulate heat transfer during the freezing process in prostate cancer cryosurgery is presented. Tissues are treated as nonideal materials wherein phase transition occurs over a temperature range, thermophysical properties are temperature dependent and heating due to blood flow and metabolism are included. Boundary conditions were determined at the surfaces of the commercially available cryoprobes and urethral warmer by experimental study of temperature combined with a mathematical optimization process. For simulations, a suitable computational geometry was designed based on MRI imaging data of a real prostate. An enthalpy formulation-based numerical solution was performed for a prescribed surgical protocol to mimic a clinical freezing process. This computational framework allows for the individual planning of cryosurgical procedures and objective assessment of the effectiveness of prostate cryosurgery.