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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Soft Tissue

The Relationship of Normal and Abnormal Microstructural Proliferation to the Mitral Valve Closure Sound

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel R. Einstein

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195

Karyn S. Kunzelman, Richard P. Cochran

Central Maine Medical Center, Central Maine Heart and Vascular Institute, Lewiston, Maine 04240

Per G. Reinhall

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195

Mark A. Nicosia

University of Minnesota, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

J Biomech Eng 127(1), 134-147 (Mar 08, 2005) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1835359 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised September 01, 2004; Online March 08, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Symmetry conditions and dimensions of fluid domain. The coordinates of three points: (1) the papillary muscle tip; and (2) and (3) the symmetry points of the anterior and posterior annuli are given with respect to the indicated coordinate system for reference.
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Structural paradigm for mitral leaflet tissue. Collagen fibers (wavy lines) are embedded in an isotropic matrix (α). Locally, the fibers have a mean preferred direction (μ). The standard deviation (σ) determines the Gaussian distribution of collagen fibers about that mean as a function of the splay angle (θ).
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Anterior mitral valve, fiber and cross-fiber directions. Arrows indicate the effect of increasing strain levels in the orthogonal direction.
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Mean collagen fiber direction map from SALS data 13
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Location of normal velocity vector calculation projected on the closed anterior and posterior leaflets
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Simulated intraventricular S1 (a) and measured thoracic S1 (b).
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Trans-mitral flow as a function of (A) isotropic parameter α, (B) collagen volume fraction, (C) fiber stiffness, and (D) fiber splay
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Variation of peak frequency with perturbation of parameters for (A) isotropic phase, (B) normalized volume fraction, (C) fiber stiffness, and (D) fiber splay. Anterior leaflet (AL); posterior leaflet (PL); summed leaflet (SL); acoustic pressure (AP)
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Time–frequency signatures for α=1 (A), (B), α=10 (C), (D), α=100 (E), (F ), and α=1000 (G), (H) The left-hand side (A), (C), (E), (G) is the sum of the anterior and posterior velocity signals. The right-hand side (B), (D), (F ), (H) is the acoustic pressure signal.
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Time–frequency signatures for A/10 (A), (B), A (C), (D), and A*10 (E), (F ). The left-hand side (A), (C), (E) is the sum of the anterior and posterior velocity signals. The right-hand side (B), (D), (F ) is the acoustic pressure signal.
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Time–frequency signatures for B=35 (A), (B), B=40 (C), (D), and B=45 (E), (F ). The left-hand side (A), (C), (E) is the sum of the anterior and posterior velocity signals. The right-hand side (B), (D), (F ) is the acoustic pressure signal.
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Time–frequency signatures for σ=10 deg (A), (B), σ=20 deg (C), (D), and σ=30 deg (E), (F ). The left-hand side (A), (C), (E) is the sum of the anterior and posterior velocity signals. The right-hand side (B), (D), (F ) is the acoustic pressure signal.

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