TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Thermal Damage Prediction for Collagenous Tissues Part I: A Clinically Relevant Numerical Simulation Incorporating Heating Rate Dependent Denaturation*

[+] Author and Article Information
Alptekin Aksan

Center for Engineering in Medicine and Department of Surgical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Shriners Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114

John J. McGrath

Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721

David S. Nielubowicz

Pontiac Structural Durability Laboratories, General Motors Corporation, Pontiac, MI 48341

J Biomech Eng 127(1), 85-97 (Mar 08, 2005) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1835355 History: Received February 29, 2004; Revised August 09, 2004; Online March 08, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lee,  E. W., Paulos,  L. E., and Warren,  R. F., 2002, “Complications of Thermal Energy in Knee Surgery—Part II,” Clin. Sports Med., 21, 4, pp. 753–763.
Kelly,  B. T., and Warren,  R. F., 2002, “Complications of Thermal Energy in Knee Surgery—Part I,” Clin. Sports Med., 21, 4, pp. 737–751.
Cline,  S., and Wolin,  P., 2002, “The Use of Thermal Energy in Ankle Instability,” Clin. Sports Med., 21, 4, pp. 713–725.
Anderson,  K., McCarty,  E. C., and Warren,  R. F., 1999, “Thermal Capsulorraphy: Where are We Today?,” Sports Med., 7, pp. 117–127.
Perry,  J. J., and Higgins,  L. D., 2000, “Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture After Thermal Treatment,” Arthroscopy, 16, 7, pp. 732–736.
Noonan,  T. J., Tokish,  J. M., Briggs,  K. K., and Hawkins,  R. J., 2003, “Laser-Assisted Thermal Capsulorrhaphy,” Arthroscopy, 19, 8, pp. 815–819.
Biyani,  A., Andersson,  G. B. J., Chaudhary,  H., and An,  H. S., 2003, “Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy—A Treatment Option in Patients With Internal Disc Disruption,” Spine, 28, 15, pp. S8–S14.
Wetzel,  F. T., McNally,  T. A., and Phillips,  F. M., 2002, “Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy Used to Manage Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain—New Directions and Interventions,” Spine, 27, 22, pp. 2621–2626.
Pollock,  R. G., and Bigliani,  L. U., 1993, “Glenohumeral Instability: Evaluation and Treatment,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg., 1, 1, pp. 24–32.
Pope,  F. M., and Burrows,  N. P., 1997, “Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome has Varied Molecular Mechanisms,” J. Med. Genet., 34, 5, pp. 400–410.
Baeyens,  J.-P., Van Roy,  P., De Schepper,  A., Declercq,  G., and Clarijs,  J. P., 2001, “Glenohumeral Joint Kinematics Related to Minor Anterior Instability of the Shoulder at the End of the Late Preparatory Phase of Throwing,” Clin. Biomech. (Los Angel. Calif.), 16, pp. 752–757.
Pollock,  R. G., Wang,  V. M., Bucchieri,  J. S., Cohen,  N. P., Huang,  C.-Y., Pawluk,  R. J., Flatow,  E. L., Bigliani,  L. U., and Mow,  V. C., 2000, “Effects of Repetitive Subfailure Strains on the Mechanical Behavior of the Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 9, 5, pp. 427–435.
Jobe,  F. W., Giangarra,  C. E., Kvitne,  R. S., and Glousman,  R. E., 1991, “Anterior Capsulolabral Reconstruction of the Shoulder in Athletes in Overhead Sports,” Am. J. Sports Med., 19, 5, pp. 428–434.
Arnoczky, S. P., and Aksan, A., 2001, “Thermal Modification of Connective Tissues: Basic Science Considerations and Clinical Implications,” in American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Instructional Course Lectures, AAOS, Chicago, IL, pp. 3–11.
Nelson,  B. J., and Arciero,  R. A., 2000, “Arthroscopic Management of Glenohumeral Instability,” Am. J. Sports Med., 28, 4, pp. 602–614.
Wren,  T. A. L., and Carter,  D. R., 1998, “A Microstructural Model for the Tensile Constitutive and Failure Behavior of Soft Skeletal Connective Tissue,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 55–61.
Chen,  S. S., Wright,  N. T., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1997, “Heat-Induced Changes in the Mechanics of a Collagenous Tissue: Isothermal Free Shrinkage,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119, pp. 372–378.
Allain,  J. C., Le Lous,  M., Cohensolal,  L., Bazin,  S., and Maroteaux,  P., 1980, “Isometric Tensions Developed During the Hydrothermal Swelling of Rat Skin,” Connect. Tissue Res., 7, pp. 127–133.
Savoie,  F. H., and Field,  L. D., 2000, “Thermal Versus Suture Treatment of Symptomatic Capsular Laxity,” Clin. Sports Med., 19, 1, pp. 63–75.
Tyler,  F. T., 2000, “Electrothermally-Assisted Capsulorraphy (ETAC): A New Surgical Method for Glenohumeral Instability and Its Rehabilitation Considerations,” J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther., 30, 7, pp. 390–400.
Humphrey, J. D., 2002, Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics: Cells, Tissues, and Organs, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Miles,  C. A., Burjanadze,  T. V., and Bailey,  A. J., 1995, “The Kinetics of the Thermal Denaturation of Collagen in Unrestrained Rat Tail Tendon Determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry,” J. Mol. Biol., 245, pp. 437–446.
Olde Damink,  L. H. H., 1995, “Glutaraldehyde as a Crosslinking Agent for Collagen-Based Biomaterials,” J. Mater. Sci., 6, pp. 460–472.
Hayashi,  K., Thabit,  G., Massa,  K. L., Bogdanske,  J. J., Cooley,  A. J., Orwin,  J. F., and Markel,  M. D., 1997, “The Effect of Thermal Heating on the Length and Histologic Properties of the Glenohumeral Joint Capsule,” Am. J. Sports Med., 25, 1, pp. 107–112.
Aksan,  A., and McGrath,  J. J., 2003, “Thermomechanical Analysis of Soft Tissue Thermotherapy,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125, pp. 700–708.
Naseef,  G. S., Foster,  T. E., Trauner,  K., Solhpour,  S., Anderson,  R. R., and Zarins,  B., 1997, “The Thermal Properties of Bovine Joint Capsule—The Basic Science of Laser- and Radiofrequency-Induced Capsular Shrinkage,” Am. J. Sports Med., 25, 5, pp. 670–674.
Hayashi,  K., Thabit,  G., Bogdanske,  J. J., Mascio,  L. N., and Markel,  M. D., 1996, “The Effect of Nonablative Laser Energy on the Ultrastructure of Joint Capsular Collagen,” Arthroscopy, 12, 4, pp. 474–481.
Cilesiz,  I., 1997, “Controlled Temperature Tissue Fusion: Argon Laser Welding of Rat Intestine In Vivo, Part One,” Lasers Surg. Med., 21, pp. 269–277.
Pearce,  J. A., 1993, “Kinetics for Birefringence Changes in Thermally Coagulated Rat Skin Collagen,” Proc. SPIE, 1876, pp. 180–186.
Le Lous,  M., 1983, “Hydrothermal Isometric Tension Curves From Different Connective Tissues. Role of Collagen Genetic Types and Noncollagenous Components,” Connect. Tissue Res., 11, pp. 199–206.
Kang,  T., 1995, “Heat-Induced Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Passive Coronary Arteries,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 117, pp. 86–93.
Chen,  S. S., Wright,  N. T., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1998, “Heat-Induced Changes in the Mechanics of a Collagenous Tissue: Isothermal Isotonic Shrinkage,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 382–388.
Privalov,  P. L., 1982, “Stability of Proteins—Proteins Which Do Not Present a Single Cooperative System,” Adv. Protein Chem., 35, pp. 1–104.
Tang,  J., 1997, “Morphologic Changes in Collagen Fibers After 830 nm Diode Laser Welding,” Lasers Surg. Med., 21, pp. 438–443.
Privalov,  P. L., 1989, “Thermodynamic Problems of Protein Structure,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem., 18, pp. 47–69.
Ruijgrok,  J., Mdewijn,  J. R., and Boon,  M. E., 1994, “Optimizing Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linking of Collagen—Effects of Time, Temperature and Concentration as Measured by Shrinkage Temperature,” J. Mater. Sci., 5, 2, pp. 80–87.
Le Carpentier Motamedi,  M., McMath,  L. P., Rastegar,  S., and Welch,  A. J., 1993, “Continuous Wave Laser Ablation of Tissue: Analysis of Thermal and Mechanical Events,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 40, 2, pp. 188–199.
Schaefer,  S. L., Ciarelli,  M. J., Arnoczky,  S. P., and Ross,  H. E., 1997, “Tissue Shrinkage With the Holmium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser—A Postoperative Assessment of Tissue Length, Stiffness, and Structure,” Am. J. Sports Med., 25, 6, pp. 841–848.
Berend,  M. E., Glisson,  R. R., Seaber,  A. V., and Speer,  K. S., 1996, “Soft tissue shortening with the Ho:YAG laser: experimental model and structural effects,” Transactions of Orthopaedic Research Society,21, p. 50.
Hayashi,  K., Markel,  M. D., Thabit,  G., Bogdanske,  J. J., and Thielke,  R. J., 1995, “The Effect of Nonablative Laser Energy on Joint Capsular Collagen—An In Vitro Mechanical Study Using a Rabbit Model,” Am. J. Sports Med., 23, 4, pp. 482–487.
Le Lous,  M., Cooley,  A. J., Allain,  J. C., Bonaventure,  J., and Maroteaux,  P., 1985, “Age Related Evolution of Stable Collagen Reticulation in Human Skin,” Connect. Tissue Res., 13, pp. 145–155.
Aksan, A., McGrath, J. J., Barton, J. K., Gmitro, A. F., and Arnoczky, S. P., “Thermal Damage Prediction for Collagenous Tissues Part II: Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulationn and Damage Visualization by Optical Coherence Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng. (to be published).
Welch, A. J., 1985, “Laser Irradiation of Tissue,” in Heat Transfer in Medicine and Biology, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 135–184.
Nath,  S., Dimarco,  J. P., and Haines,  D. E., 1994, “Basic Aspects of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., 2, 10, pp. 863–876.
Penascu,  D., Whayne,  J. G., Fleischman,  S. D., Mirotznik,  M. S., Swanson,  D. K., and Webster,  J. G., 1995, “Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Current Density and Temperature Distributions During Radio-Frequency Ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 42, 9, pp. 879–889.
Shitzer, A., “Temperature Fields and Lesion Sizes in Electrosurgery and Induction Thermocoagulation,” in Heat Transfer in Medicine and Biology, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 55–84.
Erez,  A., and Shitzer,  A., 1980, “Controlled Destruction and Temperature Distributions in Biological Tissues Subjected to Monoactive Electrocoagulation,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 102, 1, pp. 42–49.
Henriques,  F. C., 1947, “Studies of Thermal Injury, V. The Predicatbility and the Significance of Thermally Induced Rate Processes Leading to Irreversible Epidermal Injury,” Arch. Pathol., 43, pp. 489–502.
Kampmeier,  J., Radt,  B., Birngruber,  R., and Brinkmann,  R., 2000, “Thermal and Biomechanical Parameters of Porcine Cornea,” Cornea, 19, 3, pp. 355–363.
Pearce,  J. A., Thomsen,  S., Vijverg,  H., and Magnusen,  T., 1993, “Quantitative Measures of Thermal Damage: Birefringence Changes in Thermally Coagulated Collagen,” ASME Advances in Bioheat and Mass Transfer,HTD-268, pp. 141–144.
Miles,  C. A., 1993, “Kinetics of Collagen Denaturation in Mammalian Lens Capsules Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 15, 5, pp. 265–271.
Lyubarev,  A. E., and Kurganov,  B. I., 1998, “Modeling of Irreversible Thermal Protein Denaturation at Varying Temperature. I. The Model Involving Two Consecutive Irreversible Steps,” Biochemistry (Mosc.), 63, 4, pp. 434–440.
Usha,  R., and Ramasami,  T., 1999, “Influence of Hydrogen Bond, Hydrophobic and Electrovalent Salt Linkages on the Transition Temperature, Enthalpy and Activation Energy in Rat Tail Tendon (RTT) Collagen Fibre,” Thermochim. Acta, 338, pp. 17–25.
Burdzhanadze,  T. V., Metreveli,  N. O., Mdzinarashvili,  T. D., and Mrevlishvili,  G. M., 1997, “Calorimetric Study of the Thermodynamic Parameters of Collagen Denaturation in Diluted Solutions at Different Scanning Rates,” Biofizika, 42, 1, pp. 75–77.
Tiktopulo,  E. I., and Kajava,  A. V., 1998, “Denaturation of Type I Collagen Fibrils is an Endothermic Process Accompanied by a Noticeable Change in the Partial Heat Capacity,” Biochemistry, 37, 22, pp. 8147–8152.
Pearce, J., and Thomsen, S., 1995, “Rate Process Analysis of Thermal Damage,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 561–606.
Rosenthal,  D., 1946, “The Theory of Moving Sources of Heat and Its Application to Metal Treatments,” Trans. ASME, 68, pp. 849–866.
Glen,  T. A., Rastegar,  S., and Jacques,  S. L., 1996, “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature Controlled Coagulation in Laser Irradiated Tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 43, 1, pp. 79–86.


Grahic Jump Location
The two-dimensional control volume, and the schematics of bipolar and monopolar radio frequency probes
Grahic Jump Location
Characteristic DSC thermogram of a rabbit patellar tendon sample
Grahic Jump Location
Transition peak temperature, Tmax, as a function of scanning rate, r. (Data for rat tail tendon are from Miles et al. 22.)
Grahic Jump Location
Peak width at half height, ΔT, as a function of scanning rate, r. (Data for rat tail tendon is from Miles et al. 22 and data for porcine lens capsule (PLC) is from Miles 51.)
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of incorporating heating rate dependent denaturation in the model on the resultant temperature and thermal damage profiles
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of FEM simulation with the exact solution
Grahic Jump Location
Instantaneous temperature distribution (A) and accumulated thermal damage (B) during monopolar heating at a sweep speed of 2 mm/s. (P=10 W/m3,r0=1 mm,h=500 W/m2 K.)
Grahic Jump Location
Thermal damage accumulation in the tissue (A) (h=500 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0); (B) (h=500 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0.002 m/s); (C) (h=500 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0.004 m/s). (E0: laser (L) surface heat flux [W/m2 ], q″ : bipolar (BP) surface heat flux [W/m2 ], P: monopolar (MP) Joule heating [W].)
Grahic Jump Location
Thermal damage accumulation in the tissue (A) (h=50 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0), (B) (h=50 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0.002 m/s), (C) (h=50 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0.004 m/s). (E0: laser (L) surface heat flux [W/m2 ], q″ : bipolar (BP) surface heat flux [W/m2 ], P: monopolar (MP) Joule heating [W].)
Grahic Jump Location
Thermal damage accumulation on the tissue surface (A) (h=50 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0), (B) (h=50 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0.002 m/s), (C) (h=50 W/m2 K,ω=r0=0.001 m,V=0.004 m/s). (E0: laser (L) surface heat flux [W/m2 ], q″ : bipolar (BP) surface heat flux [W/m2 ], P: monopolar (MP) Joule heating [W].)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In