TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Bioheat and Mass Transfer as Viewed Through a Microscope

[+] Author and Article Information
Kenneth R. Diller

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712e-mail: kdiller@mail.utexas.edu

J Biomech Eng 127(1), 67-84 (Mar 08, 2005) (18 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1835354 History: Received February 24, 2004; Revised October 07, 2004; Online March 08, 2005

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Anderson, M. D., 1965, Through the Microscope, The Natural History Press, Garden City, NY.
Boyle, R., 1665, An Account of Freezing: New Experiments and Observations Touching Cold, John Crook, London.
Pringsheim, E. G., 1932, Julius Sachs: Founder of Modern Plant Physiology, 1832–1897, Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena.
Diller,  K. R., 1996, “Pioneers in Cryobiology: Julius von Sachs (1832–1897),” Cryo-Letters, 17, pp. 201–212.
Sachs,  J., 1860, “Crystal Formation during Freezing and Alteration of the Cell Membrane during Thawing of Juicy Plant Sections,” Berichte über die Verhandlungen der königliich sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Mathematisch-Physische Classe, 12, pp. 1–50.
Sachs, J., 1868, Lehrbuch der Botanik, Leipzig.
Müller-Thurgau, H., 1880, “Concerning Freezing and Freezing Death in Plants,” 9 , pp. 133–189.
Fritzsche, R., Heberlein, F., and Schmid, H., 1974, Swiss Pioneers in Economics and Technology 1850-1927, Schweizer Pioniere der Wirtschaft und Technik, 29, Verein für wirtschaftshistorische Studien, Zürich.
Molisch, H., 1897, Untersuchungen über das Erfrieren der Pflanzen, Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena.
Molisch,  H., 1982, “Investigations on the Freezing of Plants,” Cryo-Letters, 3, pp. 331–390 (English translation of 9).
Schander,  R., and Schafnitt,  E., 1919, “Investigations on the Winter Exposure of Grains,” Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbücher, 52, pp. 1–66.
Smith,  A. U., Polge,  C., and Smiles,  J., 1951, “Microscopic Observation of Living Cells During Freezing and Thawing,” J. R. Microsc. Soc., 71, pp. 186–195.
Polge,  C., 1981, “Audrey U. Smith, M.D., D.Sc.,” Cryo-Letters, 2, 225–228.
Luyet, B. J., 1966, “Anatomy of the Freezing Process in Physical Systems,” in Cryobiology, edited by H. T. Meryman, Academic Press, New York, pp. 115–138.
Luyet,  B., and Rapatz,  G., 1957, “An Automatically Regulated Refrigeration System for Small Laboratory Equipment and a Microscope Cooling Stage,” Biodynamica, 7, pp. 337–345.
Rapatz,  G., and Luyet,  B., 1957, “Apparatus for Cinemicrography During Rapid Freezing,” Biodynamica, 7, pp. 347–355.
Meryman,  H. T., 1975, “Basile J. Luyet: In Memoriam,” Cryobiology, 12, pp. 285–292.
Diller,  K. R., and Cravalho,  E. G., 1970, “A Cryomicroscope for the Study of Freezing and Thawing Processes in Biological Cells,” Cryobiology, 7, pp. 191–199.
Diller,  K. R., 1997, “Engineering-Based Contributions in Cryobiology,” Cryobiology, 34, pp. 304–314.
Diller,  K. R., Cravalho,  E. G., and Huggins,  C. E., 1972, “Intracellular Freezing in Biomaterials,” Cryobiology, 9, pp. 429–440.
Diller,  K. R., 1975, “Intracellular Freezing: Effects of Supercooling,” Cryobiology, 12, pp. 480–485.
Cosman,  M. D., Toner,  M., Kandel,  J., and Cravalho,  E. G., 1989, “An Integrated Cryomicroscopy System,” Cryo-Letters, 10, pp. 17–38.
McGrath,  J. J., Cravalho,  E. G., and Huggins,  C. E., 1975, “An Experimental Comparison of Intracellular Ice Formation and Freeze–Thaw Survival of Hela S-3 Cells,” Cryobiology, 12, pp. 540–552.
Rubinsky,  B., and Ikeda,  M., 1985, “A Cryomicroscope Using Directional Solidification for the Controlled Freezing of Biological Material,” Cryobiology, 22, pp. 55–68.
Körber,  C., 1988, “Phenomena at the Advancing Ice-liquid Interface: Solutes, Particles, and Biological Cells,” Q. Rev. Biophys., 21, pp. 229–298.
Beckman,  J., Körber,  Ch., Rau,  G., Hubel,  A., and Cravalho,  E. G., 1990, “Redefining Cooling Rates in Terms of Ice Front Velocity and Thermal Gradient: First Evidence of Relevance to Freezing Injury of Lymphocytes,” Cryobiology, 27, pp. 279–287.
Rubinsky,  B., Amir,  A., and Devries,  A. L., 1991, “Cryopreservation of Oocytes Using Directional Cooling and Antifreeze Glycoproteins,” Cryo-Letters, 12, pp. 93–106.
Ishiguro,  H., and Rubinsky,  B., 1994, “Mechanical Interactions Between Ice Crystals and Red Blood Cells During Directional Solidification,” Cryobiology, 31, pp. 483–500.
Takamatsu,  H., and Rubinsky,  B., 1999, “Viability of Deformed Cells,” Cryobiology, 39, pp. 243–251.
Pazhayannur,  P. V., and Bischof,  J. C., 1997, “Measurement and Simulation of Water Transport during Freezing in Mammalian Liver Tissue,” J. Biomech. Eng., 119, pp. 269–277.
Devireddy,  R. V., Smith,  D. J., and Bischof,  J. C., 1999, “Mass Transfer in Freezing of Rat Prostate Tumor Tissue,” Am. J. Cardiol., 45, pp. 639–654.
Kourosh,  S., and Diller,  K. R., 1984, “A Unidirectional Temperature Gradient Stage for Solidification Studies in Aqueous Solutions,” J. Microsc., 135, pp. 39–48.
Neils,  C. M., and Diller,  K. R., 2004, “A Vertical Freezing Stage for Laser-Scanning Microscopy of Broad Ice-Water Interfaces,” J. Microsc., 216, pp. 249–262.
Schwartz,  G. J., and Diller,  K. R., 1982, “Design and Fabrication of a Simple, Versatile Cryomicroscopy Stage,” Cryobiology, 19, pp. 529–538.
McCaa,  C., and Diller,  K. R., 1987, “A New Convection Cryostage Design Based on Simplified Fabrication Procedures,” Cryo-Letters, 8, pp. 168–175.
Evans,  C. D., and Diller,  K. R., 1982, “A Programmable, Microprocessor-Controlled Temperature Stage for Burn and Freezing Studies in the Microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res., 24, pp. 214–225.
Shah,  S. J., Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  S. J., 1987, “A Personal Computer Based Temperature Control System for Cryomicroscopy,” Cryobiology, 24, pp. 163–168.
Yip,  J. C. Y., Walcerz,  D. B., and Dille,  K. R., 1990, “A Versatile Thermal Control System for Cryomicroscopy,” J. Comput.-Assist. Micros., 1, pp. 291–306.
McGrath,  J. J., 1985, “A Microscope Diffusion Chamber for the Determination of the Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium Response of Individual Cells,” J. Microsc., 139, pp. 249–263.
McGrath, J. J., 1988, “Membrane Transport Properties,” in Low Temperature Biotechnology: Emerging Applications and Engineering Contributions, edited by J. J. McGrath and K. R. Diller, ASME, New York, pp. 273–330.
Gao,  D. Y., Benson,  C. T., Liu,  C., McGrath,  J. J., Critser,  E. S., and Criser,  J. K., 1996, “Development of a Novel Microperfusion Chamber for Determination of Cell Membrane Transport Properties,” Biophys. J., 71, pp. 443–450.
Walcerz,  D. B., and Diller,  K. R., 1991, “Quantitative Light Microscopy of Combined Perfusion and Freezing Processes,” J. Microsc., 161, pp. 297–311.
Diller,  K. R., and Bradley,  D. A., 1984, “Measurement of the Water Permeability of Single Human Granulocytes on a Microscopic Stopped-flow Mixing System,” J. Biomech. Eng., 106, pp. 384–393.
He, X., and Bischof, J. C., 2004, “Quantification of Temperature and Injury Response in Thermal Therapy and Cryosurgery,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (in press).
Diller,  K. R., Beaman,  J. J., Montoya,  J. P., and Breedfeld,  P. C., 1988, “Network Thermodynamic Modeling with Bond Graphs for Membrane Transport During Cell Freezing,” J. Heat Transfer, 110, pp. 938–945.
Rylander,  C., Dave,  D. P., Akkin,  T., Milner,  T. E., Diller,  K. R., and Welch,  A. J., 2004, “Quantitative Phase Contrast Imaging of Cells with Phase Sensitive Optical Coherence Microscopy,” Opt. Lett., 29, pp. 1509–1151.
Moussa,  N. A., Tell,  E. N., and Cravalho,  E. G., 1979, “Time Progression of Hemolysis of Erythrocyte Populations Exposed to Supraphysiological Temperatures,” J. Biomech. Eng., 101, pp. 213–217.
Bhowmick,  S., Swanlund,  D. J., and Bischof,  J. C., 2000, “Supraphysiological Thermal Injury in Dunning AT-1 Prostate Tumor Cells,” J. Biomech. Eng., 122, pp. 51–59.
Ross,  D. C., and Diller,  K. R., 1976, “An Experimental Investigation of Burn Injury in Living Tissue,” J. Heat Transfer, 98, pp. 292–296.
Green,  D. M., and Diller,  K. R., 1978, “Measurement of Burn Induced Leakage of Macromolecules in Living Tissue,” J. Biomech. Eng., 100, pp. 153–158.
Diller,  K. R., Parsons,  J. P., and Evans,  C. D., 1980, “Changes in Interstitial Macromolecular Transport Effected by Freeze/Thaw Trauma,” Cryo-Letters, 1, pp. 109–114.
Aggarwal,  S. J., Da Costa,  R., Diller,  K. R., and Hinich,  M. J., 1990, “The Effects of Burn Injury on Vasoactivity in Hamster Peripheral Microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res., 40, pp. 73–87.
Yip,  C. Y. J., Aggarwal,  S. J., Diller,  K. R., and Bovik,  A. C., 1991, “Simultaneous Multiple Site Arteriolar Vasomotion Measurement Using Digital Image Analysis,” Microvasc. Res., 41, pp. 73–83.
Da Costa,  R., Aggarwal,  S. J., Baxter,  C. R., and Diller,  K. R., 1992, “The Effects of Epinephrine, Ibuprofen and TCDO on the Thermally Injured Cutaneous Microcirculation,” J. Burn Care Rehabil., 13, pp. 396–402.
Hoffmann,  N. E., and Bischof,  J. C., 2001, “Cryosurgery of Normal and Tumor Tissue in the Dorsal Skin Flap Chamber: Part I–Thermal Response,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 123, pp. 301–309.
Gourgouliatos,  Z. F., Ghaffari,  S., Welch,  A. J., Diller,  K. R., and Straight,  R. C., 1992, “Measurements of Argon Laser Light Attenuation in the Skin ‘In Vivo’ Using a Unique Animal Model,” J. Lasers Med. Sci., 7, pp. 63–71.
Diller,  K. R., and Hayes,  L. J., 1991, “Analysis of Tissue Injury by Burning: Comparison of in situ and Skin Flap Models,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34, pp. 1393–1406.
Divireddy,  R. V., Coad,  J. E., and Bischof,  J. C., 2001, “Microscopic and Calorimetric Assessment of Freezing Processes in Uterine Fibroid Tumor Tissue,” Cryobiology, 42, pp. 225–243.
Yuan, S. and Diller, K. R., 2004, “Optical-DSC for Analysis of Energy Processes in Transparent Microscopic Systems,” J. Microsc. (in press).
Toner, M. 1993, “Nucleation of Ice Crystals in Biological Cells,” in Advances in Low Temperature Biology, edited by Steponkus, P. L., JAI Press, London, pp. 1–52.
Leibo,  S. P., McGrath,  U. J., and Cravalho,  E. G., 1978, “Microscopic Observation of Intracellular Ice Formation in Unfertilized Mouse Ova as a Function of Cooling Rate,” Cryobiology, 15, pp. 257–271.
Morris,  G. J., and McGrath,  J. J., 1981, “Intracellular Ice nucleation and Gas Bubble Formation in Spirogyra,” Cryo-Letters, 2, pp. 341–352.
Scheiwe,  M. W., and Korber,  C., 1982, “Formation and Melting of Intracellular Ice in Lymphocytes,” Cryo-Letters, 3, pp. 265–274.
Scheiwe,  M. W., and Korber,  C., 1982, “Formation and Melting of Intracellular Ice in Granulocytes,” Cryo-Letters, 3, pp. 275–284.
deFreitas,  R. C., and Diller,  K. R., 2004, “Intracellular Ice Formation in Three-Dimensional Tissues: Pancreatic Islets,” Cell Preservtn. Technol., 2, pp. 19–28.
Mazur,  P., 1963, “The Kinetics of Water Loss from Cells at Subzero Temperatures and the Likelihood of Intracellular Freezing,” J. Gen. Physiol., 47, pp. 347–369.
Dietz,  T. E., Davis,  L. S., Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  J. K., 1982, “Computer Recognition and Analysis of Freezing Cells in Noisy, Cluttered Images,” Cryobiology, 19, pp. 539–549.
Diller,  K. R., 1982, “Quantitative Low Temperature Optical Microscopy of Biological Systems,” J. Microsc., 126, pp. 9–28.
Diller,  K. R., and Knox,  J. M., 1983, “Automated Computer Analysis of Cell Size Changes During Cryomicroscope Freezing: A Biased Trident Convolution Mask Technique,” Cryo-Letters, 4, pp. 77–92.
Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  S. J., 1987, “Computer Automated Cell Size and Shape Analysis in Cryomicroscopy,” J. Microsc. 146, pp. 209–219.
Knox,  J. M., Schwartz,  G. J., and Diller,  K. R., 1980, “Volumetric Changes in Cells During Freezing and Thawing,” J. Biomech. Eng., 102, pp. 91–97.
Schwartz,  G. J., and Diller,  K. R., 1983, “Osmotic Response of Individual Cells During Freezing. I. Experimental Volume Measurements,” Cryobiology, 20, pp. 61–77.
Dietz,  T. E., Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  J. K., 1984, “Automated Computer Evaluation of Time-Varying Cryomicroscopical Images,” Cryobiology, 21, pp. 200–208.
Schwartz,  G. J., and Diller,  K. R., 1983, “Analysis of the Water Permeability of Human Granulocytes in the Presence of Extracellular Ice,” J. Biomech. Eng., 105, pp. 360–366.
Aggarwal,  S. J., Diller,  K. R., and Baxter,  C. R., 1984, “Membrane Water Permeability of Isolated Skin Cells at Subzero Temperatures,” Cryo-Letters, 5, pp. 17–26.
Tanaka,  J. Y., Walsh,  J. R., Diller,  K. R., Brand,  J. J., and Aggarwal,  S. J., 2001, “Algae Permeability to Me2SO from −3°C to 25°C,” Cryobiology, 42, pp. 286–300.
Walsh, J. R., Diller, K. R., and Brand, J. J., 2004, “Measurement and Simulation of Water and Methanol Transport in Algal Cells,” J. Biomech. Eng., 126 , pp. 167–179.
Macias-Garza,  F., Bovik,  A. C., Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  J. K., 1988, “Digital Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Serially Sectioned Optical Images,” IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process., 36, pp. 1067–1075.
Kim,  N. K., Aggarwal,  S. J., Bovik,  A. C., Dille,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  J. K., 1989, “Stereoscopic Analysis of Shape Changes in Solanum Tuberosa Slices under Osmotic Shock,” Eur. J. Cell Biol., 48, pp. 21–24.
Kim,  N. H., Bovik,  A. C., Aggarwal,  S. J., Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  J. K., 1990, “Automated Three-dimensional Analysis of Stereo-microscopic Images,” J. Microsc., 158, pp. 275–284.
Bartels,  K., Bovik,  A. C., Aggarwal,  S. J., and Diller,  K. R., 1993, “The Analysis of Biological Shape Changes from Multi-Dimensional Dynamic Images,” J. Comput. Med. Imaging Graphics, 17, pp. 89–99.
Körber,  C., and Scheiwe,  M. W., 1983, “Observation on the Non-planar Freezing of Aqueous Salt Solutions,” J. Cryst. Growth, 61, pp. 307–316.
Körber,  C., Scheiwe,  M. W., and Wöllhover,  K., 1983, “Solute Polarization during Planar Freezing of Aqueous Salt Solutions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 26, pp. 1241–1253.
Kourosh,  S., Crawford,  M. E., and Diller,  K. R., 1990, “Microscopic Study of Coupled Heat and Mass Transport during Unidirectional Solidification of Binary Solutions. I. Thermal Analysis,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 33, pp. 29–38.
Kourosh,  S., Diller,  K. R., and Crawford,  M. E., 1990, “Microscopic Study of Coupled Heat and Mass Transport during Unidirectional Solidification of Binary Solutions. II. Mass Transfer Analysis,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 33, pp. 39–53.
Hayes, L. J., Chang, H. J., and Diller, K. R., 1992, “Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer During Dendritic Solidification in Tissue Freezing,” in Macroscopic and Microscopic Heat and Mass Transfer in Biomedical Engineering, edited by K. R. Diller and A. Shitzer, ICHMT Press, Belgrade, pp. 327–336.
Vemuri,  B. C., Diller,  K. R., Davis,  L. S., and Aggarwal,  J. K., 1983, “Image Analysis of Solid-Liquid Interface Morphology in Freezing Solutions,” Pattern Recogn., 16, pp. 51–61.
Vemuri,  B. C., Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  J. K., 1984, “A Model for Characterizing the Motion of the Solid-Liquid Interface in Freezing Solutions,” Pattern Recogn., 17, pp. 313–319.
Ross,  D. C., and Diller,  K. R., 1978, “The Therapeutic Effects of Postburn Cooling,” J. Biomech. Eng., 100, pp. 149–152.
Hlatky, M. A., Cravalho, E. G., Diller, K. R., and Huggins, C. E., 1973, “Response of the Microcirculation to Freezing and Thawing,” ASME 73-WA/BIO-16, 8 pp.
Henriques,  F. C., 1947, “Studies of Thermal Injury. V. The Predictability and Significance of Thermally Induced Rate Processes Leading to Irreversible Epidermal Injury,” Arch. Pathol., 43, pp. 489–502.
Aggarwal,  S. J., Shah,  S. J., Diller,  K. R., and Baxter,  C. R., 1989, “Fluorescence Digital Microscopy of Interstitial Macromolecular Diffusion in Burn Injury,” Comput. Biol. Med., 19, pp. 245–261.
Aggarwal,  S. J., Diller,  K. R., Blake,  G. K., and Baxter,  C. R., 1994, “Burn Induced Alterations in Vasoactive Function of the Peripheral Cutaneous Microcirculation,” J. Burn Care Rehabil., 15, pp. 1–12.
Funk,  W., and Intaglietta,  M., 1983, “Spontaneous Arteriolar Vasomotion,” Prog. Appl. Microcirc., 3, pp. 66–82.
Gourgouliatos,  Z. F., Welch,  A. J., Diller,  K. R., and Aggarwal,  S. J., 1990, “Laser-Irradiation-Induced Relaxation of Blood Vessels In Vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med., 10, pp. 524–532.
McGrath, J. J., 1987, “Temperature-controlled Cryogenic Light Microscopy–An Introduction to Cryomicroscopy,” in The Effects of Low Temperature on Biological Systems, edited by B. W. W. Grout and G. J. Morris, Edward Arnold Publishers, London, pp. 234–256.
Diller, K. R., 1988, “Cryomicroscopy,” in Low Temperature Biotechnology: Emerging Applications and Engineering Contributions, edited by J. J. McGrath and K. R. Diller, ASME, New York, pp. 347–362.


Grahic Jump Location
Measured thermal history in a cell suspension frozen and thawed in a multistep process on a convection cryostage under feedback control of a simple analog programming circuit
Grahic Jump Location
(Color online) Human erythrocytes frozen in normal saline solution and imaged via polarized light brightfield microscopy. (a) Cells entrapped in channels of concentrated solute solution (blue) within a matrix of extracellular ice (red), resulting in extensive dehydration. The cooling rate was considerably less than the threshold for intracellular ice formation. (b) Cells following the nucleation of intracellular ice. A coarse crystalline texture is visible in both the intracellular and extracellular spaces, with the red and blue regions distributed much more homogeneously. Scale bar is 10 μm.
Grahic Jump Location
Threshold cooling rate and nucleation supercooling combinations for effecting intracellular ice formation in human erythrocytes suspended in normal saline as detected by direct observation of the freezing process on a convection cryomicroscope 21
Grahic Jump Location
Image sequences showing the development of partial IIF within the cells of a pancreas islet in 2M Me2SO cooled at 50°C/min (adapted from 65). The first image (a) is a prefreezing state, the second (b) is growing EIF (extracellular ice formation) and initiation of IIF, and the third (c) is completion of the freezing process. Intracellular freezing is biased toward cells located in the islet interior, and cells on the periphery do not show darkening caused by the presence of small internal ice crystals. Note that there is a delay between EIF and IIF and that the total islet volume is constant during freezing. Scale bar is 100 μm.
Grahic Jump Location
Freezing sequence for a pair of HeLa cells imaged via phase contrast microscopy, producing a pronounced halo surrounding the cells and at the ice–liquid solution boundary. Images (a)–(d) were taken at progressively lower temperatures and depict two phenomena clearly: substantial loss of cell volume as the solute concentration in the extracellular solutions increases with decreasing temperature; and mechanical deformation of the cells as they are trapped between growing extracellular ice masses. Scale bar is 10 μm. Image (e) is taken from a video monitor during a digitizing process for which the gray scale histogram along the central vertical scan line is superimposed to the right side.
Grahic Jump Location
Serial micrographs (a)–(g) from a freeze/thaw sequence for yeast cells on a convection cryomicroscope in isotonic solution (adapted from 73). Cell boundaries were isolated from the image of frozen cells with a digital algorithm 69 (h), and the size was normalized to the prefreezing value for each image and plotted as a function of temperature (i).
Grahic Jump Location
(Color online) Flow of two colored solutions into the Y-junction on the stopped flow osmotic challenge stage. Cells were suspended in one solution and a different chemical concentration in the second. Cells at the interface where the two flows meet would experience an osmotic challenge by diffusion between the two merged streams 43.
Grahic Jump Location
Progressive dehydration of a pancreas islet following step-wise exposure to a 1000 mOsm saline solution on the perfusion cryomicroscope (adapted from 65). Scale bar is 100 μm.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of osmotic model simulations and experimental data at (a) 25°C, (b) 15°C, and (c) −3°C for C. texanum algal cells exposed to 500 mOsm sucrose (t=0 s) and then (t=1700 s for 25°C),(t=1900 s for 15°C),(t=3000 s for −3°C) to a solution containing 200 mOsm methanol and 300 mOsm sucrose (adapted from 78).
Grahic Jump Location
Pancreas islets were exposed to 2M Me2SO on the perfusion cryomicroscope and imaged via laser scanning confocal microscopy. Volumes were measured from digital reconstruction of serial scan planes. (a) Shows normalized volumes of the islet initially and at sequential times during the osmotic response process. (b) and (c) are stereo pair images of reconstructed voxels representing the islet volume at times t=0 and t=236 min, respectively. Comparison of the sequential images shows the structural distortion associated with osmotic flows throughout the islet volume.
Grahic Jump Location
Images of a freezing process on the optical axis cryomicroscope. The left image is a Phi-Z reconstruction of serial scans of the freezing of a physiological saline and 9.5% glycerol solution with 1 ppm Na–Fl, using 20× objective on a scanning confocal microscope. The ice phase is white, and concentrated solution is dark, with the gray scale proportional to the concentration of fluorescein. Vertical scale is compressed such that the vertical edge is 2.4 mm and horizontal edge is 0.7 mm. Vertical stage travel was 0.475 mm. The right image is an X–Y scan through the phase interface. Cooling rate at the base of the stage=5°C/min. (Adapted from 83.)
Grahic Jump Location
Mushy zone during the freezing of an aqueous sodium permanganate solution. (a) A micrograph of a physiological concentration solution being frozen to produce a cellular ice interface structure in the mushy zone from the tips of the cells to the base of the cells in the interstitial region. (b) Gray scale scans orthogonal to the growth direction of the phase interface showing the variations in solute concentration laterally across the ice cells and intercellular regions and longitudinally from the base of the interstitial region to the ice free region ahead of the interface. (c) Gray scale scans showing the solute concentration profiles along the center of an ice cell and the centerline of the interstitial region between cells. (Adapted from 87.)
Grahic Jump Location
Digital image analysis of phase interface morphology during the freezing of aqueous solutions. Examples of (a) planar, (b) cellular, and (c) dendritic interface structures are shown as captured on a cryomicroscope. The micrographs were digitized and subjected to serial processing and analysis algorithms to identify the phase boundary from all other image elements. The resulting phase boundary for the dendritic structure is shown in (d). Statistical feature cluster analysis was then applied to separate the three types of interface (e). The three types of geometric structure is clearly distinct when more than 30 cryomicrographs are compared. (Adapted from 8990.)
Grahic Jump Location
En face refractive index DPC-OCT images of a human epithelial cell (a) 0 s, (b) 23 s, and (c) 35 s after the application of anhydrous glycerol in the extracellular medium. Each video frame represents a 100×100 μm2 area.
Grahic Jump Location
Sequential coagulation of blood flow through a venule in the hamster cheek pouch following thermal insult.
Grahic Jump Location
Extravasation of FITC dextran 70000 from venules in the hamster cheek pouch following mild thermal insult to the central area of the field of view. The upper left image is preburn, and the next is at the time of the burn (t=0). Subsequent images are at two minute intervals, to a total observation period of 12 min.
Grahic Jump Location
Time series data for vasomotion in an arterial in the dermal circulation as observed and measured in a rat dorsal skin flap chamber. A periodic pattern of constriction and relaxation are seen in the control data. After mild local thermal stress the vasoactive function disappears as the vessel diameter increases to a steady state diameter larger than occurs at any time under normal control function.
Grahic Jump Location
(Color online) Dermal vascular bed in a rat dorsal skin flap chamber following focal laser irradiations indicated by the arrows. Blood flow at the irradiation sites is stopped.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In