0
TECHNICAL PAPERS: Soft Tissue

Material Properties and Residual Stress in the Stage 12 Chick Heart During Cardiac Looping

[+] Author and Article Information
Evan A. Zamir, Larry A. Taber

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130

J Biomech Eng 126(6), 823-830 (Feb 04, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1824129 History: Received January 08, 2004; Revised June 02, 2004; Online February 04, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Manner,  J., 2000, “Cardiac Looping in the Chick Embryo: A Morphological Review With Special Reference to Terminological and Biomechanical Aspects of the Looping Process,” Anat. Rec., 259, pp. 248–262.
Yost,  H. J., 1998, “The Genetics of Midline and Cardiac Laterality Defects,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 13, pp.185–189.
Kathiriya,  I. S., and Srivastava,  D., 2000, “Left-Right Asymmetry and Cardiac Looping: Implications for Cardiac Development and Congenital Heart Disease,” Am. J. Med. Genet., 97, pp. 271–279.
Harvey,  R. P., 1998, “Cardiac Looping—an Uneasy Deal With Laterality,” Semin. Cell Dev. Biol., 9, pp. 101–108.
Taber,  L. A., Lin,  I. E., and Clark,  E. B., 1995, “Mechanics of Cardiac Looping,” Dev. Dyn., 203, pp. 42–50.
Voronov,  D. A., Alford,  P. W., Xu,  G., and Taber,  L. A., 2004, “The Role of Mechanical Forces in Dextral Rotation During Cardiac Looping in the Chick Embryo,” Dev. Biol. 272, pp. 339–350.
Voronov,  D. A., and Taber,  L. A., 2002, “Cardiac Looping in Experimental Conditions: The Effects of Extraembryonic Forces,” Dev. Dyn., 224, pp. 413–421.
Zamir,  E. A., and Taber,  L. A., 2004, “On the Effects of Residual Stress in Microindentation Tests of Soft Tissue Structures,” J. Biomech. Eng., 126, pp. 276–283.
Zamir,  E. A., Srinivasan,  V., Perucchio,  R., and Taber,  L. A., 2003, “Mechanical Asymmetry in the Embryonic Chick Heart During Looping,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 31, pp. 1327–1336.
Miller,  C., Vanni,  M., Taber,  L., and Keller,  B., 1997, “Passive Stress-Strain Measurements in the Stage-16 and Stage-18 Embryonic Chick Heart,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119, pp. 445–451.
Lin,  I. E., and Taber,  L. A., 1994, “Mechanical Effects of Looping in the Embryonic Chick Heart,” J. Biomech., 27, pp. 311–321.
Taber,  L. A., Keller,  B. B., and Clark,  E. B., 1992, “Cardiac Mechanics in the Stage-16 Chick Embryo,” J. Biomech. Eng., 114, pp. 427–434.
Hamburger,  V., and Hamilton,  H. L., 1951, “A Series of Normal Stages in the Development of the Chick Embryo,” J. Morphol., 88, pp. 49–92.
Flynn,  M. E., Pikalow,  A. S., Kimmelman,  R. S., and Searls,  R. L., 1991, “The Mechanism of Cervical Flexure Formation in the Chick,” Anat. Embryol., 184, pp. 411–420.
Corana,  A., Marchesi,  M., Martini,  C., and Ridella,  S., 1987, “Minimizing Multimodal Functions of Continuous Variables With the Simulated Annealing Algorithm,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw., 13, pp. 262–280.
Kirkpatrick,  S., Gelatt,  C. D., and Vecchi,  M. P., 1983, “Optimization by Simulated Annealing,” Science, 220, pp. 671–680.
Humphrey, J. D., 2002, Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics: Cells, Tissues, and Organs, Springer, New York.
Schiff, D., and D’Agostino, R., 1996, Practical Engineering Statistics, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
Lacktis, J. W., and Manasek, F. J., 1978, “An Analysis of Deformation During a Normal Morphogenic Event,” Morphogenesis and Malformation of the Cardiovascular System, edited by Rosenquist, G. C. and Bergsma, D., Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 205–227.
Davidson,  L. A., Oster,  G. F., Keller,  R. E., and Koehl,  M. A., 1999, “Measurements of Mechanical Properties of the Blastula Wall Reveal Which Hypothesized Mechanisms of Primary Invagination Are Physically Plausible in the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus Purpuratus,” Dev. Biol. (Orlando, FL, U.S.), 209, pp. 221–238.
Lee,  B., Litt,  M., and Buchsbaum,  G., 1992, “Rheology of the Vitreous Body. Part I: Viscoelasticity of Human Vitreous,” Biorheology, 29, pp. 521–533.
Lee,  B., Litt,  M., and Buchsbaum,  G., 1994, “Rheology of the Vitreous Body: Part 2. Viscoelasticity of Bovine and Porcine Vitreous,” Biorheology, 31, pp. 327–338.
Krause,  W. E., Bellomo,  E. G., and Colby,  R. H., 2001, “Rheology of Sodium Hyaluronate Under Physiological Conditions,” Biomacromolecules, 2, pp. 65–69.
Crescenzi,  V., Francescangeli,  A., and Taglienti,  A., 2002, “New Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Via Enzymatic Networking,” Biomacromolecules, 3, pp. 1384–1391.
Park,  Y. D., Tirelli,  N., and Hubbell,  J. A., 2003, “Photopolymerized Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogels and Interpenetrating Networks,” Biomaterials, 24, pp. 893–900.
Lutolf,  M. P., and Hubbell,  J. A., 2003, “Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of End-Linked Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Co-Peptide Hydrogels Formed by Michael-Type Addition,” Biomacromolecules, 4, pp. 713–722.
Chapuis,  J. F., and Agache,  P., 2002, “A New Technique to Study the Mechanical Properties of Collagen Lattices,” J. Biomech., 25, pp. 115–120.
Costa,  K. D., May-Newman,  K., Farr,  D., O’Dell,  W. G., McCulloch,  A. D., and Omens,  J. H., 1997, “Three-Dimensional Residual Strain in Midanterior Canine Left Ventricle,” Am. J. Physiol., 273, pp. H1968–H1976.
Omens,  J. H., and Fung,  Y. C., 1990, “Residual Strain in Rat Left Ventricle,” Circ. Res., 66, pp. 37–45.
Beloussov, L. V., 1998, The Dynamic Architecture of a Developing Organism: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Development of Organisms, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Stalsberg,  H., 1970, “Mechanism of Dextral Looping of the Embryonic Heart,” Am. J. Cardiol., 25, pp. 265–271.
Manasek, F. J., Kulikowski, R. R., Nakamura, A., Nguyenphuc, Q., and Lacktis, J. W., 1984, “Early heart development: A new model of cardiac morphogenesis,” Growth of the Heart in Health and Disease, edited by Zak, R., Raven Press, New York, pp. 105–130.
Manasek, F. J., Isobe, Y., Shimada, Y., and Hopkins, W., 1984, “The embryonic myocardial cytoskeleton, interstitial pressure, and the control of morphogenesis,” Congenital Heart Disease: Causes and Processes, edited by Nora, J. J. and Takao, A., Futura Publishing, Mount Kisco, NY, pp. 359–376.
Hurle,  J. M., and Ojeda,  J. L., 1977, “Cardiac Jelly Arrangement During the Formation of the Tubular Heart of the Chick Embryo,” Acta Anat. (Basel), 98, pp. 444–445.
Itasaki,  N., Nakamura,  H., and Yasuda,  M., 1989, “Changes in the Arrangement of Actin Bundles During Heart Looping in the Chick Embryo,” Anat. Embryol., 180, pp. 413–420.
Miller,  C. E., Vanni,  M. A., and Keller,  B. B., 1997, “Characterization of Passive Embryonic Myocardium by Quasi-Linear Viscoelasticity Theory,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 985–988.
Shiraishi,  I., Takamatsu,  T., Minamikawa,  T., and Fujita,  S., 1992, “3-D Observation of Actin Filaments During Cardiac Myofibrinogenesis in Chick Embryo Using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” Anat. Embryol., 185, pp. 401–408.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Residual strain experiment. (a) Stage 12 chick embryo shown with intact heart. Cuts were made in outer curvature (OC) region of looping heart in either the (b) longitudinal or (c) circumferential direction (indicated by arrows). Details are given in text. (Figure reproduced from 8.)
Grahic Jump Location
Finite element model for residual strain experiment. (a) Undeformed membrane representing myocardium is stretched equibiaxially by an amount λ. (b) Deformed membrane for λ=1.3. The cut, simulated by free nodes, opens. (Due to symmetry, only a quarter of the membrane is shown.) (c) Closeup of model in (b) showing stress distribution near the cut region. Note that the stresses decay rapidly with distance from the cut. (d) The geometric parameter α=R2/R1 for the cut is plotted as a function of the nondimensional material parameter BMY for several values of λ.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of model geometry for indentation of embryonic heart. (a) The heart is a curved tube consisting of two primary structural layers, myocardium (MY) and cardiac jelly (CJ). Indentation is simulated by applying a force P to a rigid indenter. (b) To reduce computational costs for the FE model, the heart was treated as a flat circular plate (MY) with in-plane tension (arrows) on an elastic foundation (CJ) in the region near the indenter.
Grahic Jump Location
Close-up near indenter of finite element model for indentation of cardiac jelly. Note the highly refined mesh near the indenter used to avoid excessive distortion of elements. The legend represents von Mises stress values and P is the indenter force.
Grahic Jump Location
Video frames from a microindentation experiment on an intact heart showing the indenter tip. (a) Before contact with the heart; (b) immediately after contact; (c) during indentation. Arrows point to microspheres used to measure surface displacements (see text for details). Scale bar=100 μm. (Figure reproduced from 8.)
Grahic Jump Location
Finite element indentation model for embryonic heart: circular plate (myocardium, MY) on foundation (cardiac jelly, CJ). The analysis includes three steps (a–c): (a) MY thickness h0 and radius R0 are defined in the “zero-stress” state. (b) Radial stretch ratio λ is applied to the MY layer, giving “intact” MY thickness h and radius R. (c) Indenter force P is then applied to the surface by a rigid indenter. (d) Close-up of mesh near the indenter shows the refinement of element size. The transverse displacements w of the MY surface nodes were recorded during the indentation.
Grahic Jump Location
A set of parameter convergence curves for one representative indentation experiment. The value for κ=π/b (vertical dashes) was calculated by using the data for B̄ (see text for details).
Grahic Jump Location
Force-displacement solution for CJ finite element indentation model with ACJ=3.0 Pa and BCJ=0.25 (solid line), along with all experimental curves for isolated CJ (dotted lines).
Grahic Jump Location
Force-displacement (FD) (left column) and surface displacement data (right column) for several representative hearts. For the FD plots, the solid line represents the curve taken from the best-fit finite element solution, and the solid circles represent experimental data. In the contour plots, the solid lines represent surface displacement curves of increasing force (1–8 mdyn) for the best-fit solution and the open circles represent experimental bead displacements.
Grahic Jump Location
Simulation of equibiaxial stretch test using simulated material parameters (solid curve), WGA solution (dotted curve), and best-fit finite element solution (dashed curve). The stress-stretch curve for the WGA solution lies closer to the test data than the best-fit solution.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In