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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Joint/Whole Body

Pre-Impact Lower Extremity Posture and Brake Pedal Force Predict Foot and Ankle Forces During an Automobile Collision

[+] Author and Article Information
E. C. Hardin, A. Su, A. J. van den Bogert

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195

J Biomech Eng 126(6), 770-778 (Feb 04, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1824122 History: Received September 26, 2003; Revised June 11, 2004; Online February 04, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Figures

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The seven body segments represented in the model (gray), the six muscles (black), the contact surfaces and the seat restraints. The passive left leg is resting on the toepan and the active right leg is braking. The model is shown while braking prior to the crash with muscles at minimal activation and with a brake pedal force of 400 N.
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A two-element Hill-based model was used to represent active muscles
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The deceleration pulse applied to the contact surfaces of the model obtained from the National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA, crash #2075)
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Peak external force applied to the rearfoot (FRF) during the crash for all simulations and its relationship to the pre-impact variables, BF (a), HD (b), and KA (c). HD is the distance of the heel from the toepan origin. KA equal to 0 deg signifies a full knee extension and −90 deg signifies 90 deg of knee flexion. There was a large variability in peak FRF. In many simulations, the rearfoot did not make contact with the vehicle surface during the collision resulting in a lack of external force on the rearfoot.
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Peak calcaneal force (FCF) during the crash for all simulations and its relationship to BF (a), HD (b), and KA (c). HD is the distance of the heel from the toepan origin. KA equal to 0 deg signifies a full knee extension and −90 deg signifies 90 deg of knee flexion.
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Peak ankle force (FAJ) during the crash for all simulations and its relationship to BF (a), HD (b), and KA (c). HD is the distance of the heel from the toepan origin. KA equal to 0 deg signifies a full knee extension and −90 deg signifies 90 deg of knee flexion.
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Regions of high injury risk were generated from the regression models for each of the three post-impact variables

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