Measurement of the Spatial Redistribution of Water in Rabbit Achilles Tendon in Response to Static Tensile Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
K. G. Helmer, J. Wellen

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609

P. Grigg

Department of Physiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655

C. H. Sotak

Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609;Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655

J Biomech Eng 126(5), 651-656 (Nov 23, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1800573 History: Received April 22, 2004; Revised May 20, 2004; Online November 23, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Topics: Stress , Water , Tendons
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Schematic of the experimental apparatus. Lengths of suture were used to secure tendons to an anchor point at one end and to apply tensile loads at the other. The tendon is oriented horizontally in the magnet along the direction of the magnet bore.
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(a) Schematic of tendon (represented by the cylinder) showing the orientation and placement of the imaging planes. The intersection between the slice selected by the π/2 pulse (coronal plane) and the slice selected with the π pulse (axial plane) results in a volume of excitation shown as a shaded polygon. Signal is collected from this intersection of the two slices and projected onto the axial-plane axis at readout. The axial slice thickness was 2.0 mm for all tendons. The axial slice was taken from the center of the tendon. The coronal slice thickness varied with the diameter of the tendon and was normally ∼1.0 mm. (b) A schematic of the position of the coronal imaging slice placed over an image of an unloaded tendon. The position of the slice is chosen such that the upper and lower rim regions are not included in the slice. The imaging parameters for the image are TR=2000 ms, TE=5.5 ms, matrix size=128×128, slice thickness=2.0 mm, spectral width=±16 kHz, and number of signal averages=2.
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One-dimensional M0 maps calculated from DW data sets acquired from representative rabbit Achilles tendons loaded with 5N (3a) and 10N (3b). Representative regions (one-half of the core region and one rim region) used to calculate M0i values are shown in a). Solid lines are M0 maps generated from the DW data set acquired immediately after the application of the load. Dashed lines are M0 maps generated from the last postload DW data set acquired.
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Time courses of percent changes of M0ic values from rabbit Achilles tendon with applied loads of 5N 4(a) and 10N 4(b) and M0ir values with applied loads of 5N 4(c) and 10N 4(d). The data are normalized by assigning a value of 100 to the mean of the five preload M0i values. Data collected before the load was applied are assigned negative times spaced by the total acquisition time of 2 min 40 s. Postload data times are based on the time at the beginning of the data acquisition for that point, i.e., the time of the first data point after load application is assigned to time of zero.
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Time courses of the mean M0i values over all rabbit Achilles tendons and sides for the tendon core 5(a) and rim 5(b) regions. Data points are means of percent changes shown in Fig. 4. Error bars are standard errors [N=7 for 5N data (diamonds) and N=6 for 10N data (squares)].



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