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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Computational Simulations of Airflow in an In Vitro Model of the Pediatric Upper Airways

[+] Author and Article Information
G. M. Allen, B. P. Shortall, T. Gemci, N. A. Chigier

Spray Systems Technology Center, Mechanical Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

T. E. Corcoran

Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (412)647-3730; (412)647-7875 (fax)e-mail: CorcoranTE@upmc.edu

J Biomech Eng 126(5), 604-613 (Nov 23, 2004) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1800554 History: Received March 12, 2004; Revised May 13, 2004; Online November 23, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Figures

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X–Y scatter plot of computational data showing the evolution of turbulent kinetic energy and intensity in a pediatric model. Turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence intensity in every computational cell is plotted as a function of axial position. The connection of the oral cavity and the mouth occurs at z∼0.015, the glottic restriction occurs at z∼0.04, and the carinal bifurcation at z∼0.105.
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X–Y scatter plot of computational data showing the evolution of axial velocity in a pediatric model. The axial velocity in each computational cell is graphically plotted as a function of axial position. The connection of the oral cavity and the mouth occurs at z∼0.015, the glottic restriction occurs at z∼0.04, and the carinal bifurcation at z∼0.105.
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Sagittal magnetic resonance image of pediatric subject (left) and reconstructed pediatric airway model in Gambit (right). The final model included the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, and carinal bifurcation.
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(a) For 6.4 LPM contours of axial velocity (m/s) are presented on the left, secondary velocity vectors in the center, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy (m2 /s2 ) are presented on the right. Axial position A (0.015 m) and B (0.035 m) are presented. (b) For 6.4 LPM contours of axial velocity (m/s) are presented on the left, secondary velocity vectors in the center, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy (m2 /s2 ) are presented on the right. Axial positions C (0.040 m) and D (0.045 m) are presented.
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View of reconstructed adult airway as presented in Gemci et al. (2003) 16, with permission. Of note this does not represent the computational mesh used to validate the numerical methods.
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Comparison between experimental axial velocity contours and numerical axial velocity contours in an adult. Negative x represents the anterior side, positive x the posterior side. The contour interval is 0.5 m/s and the dashed lines indicate negative axial velocities experimentally. Experimental results are reproduced with permission 5.
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Comparison between experimental turbulence measurements and numerical simulation in an adult. Negative x represents the anterior side, positive x the posterior side. The contour interval is 0.2. Experimental results are reproduced with permission 5.
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Experimental measurements of the flow rate dependence of pressure loss in the pediatric model
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Contours of Velocity Magnitude (m/s). The model was cut along the X=0 plane, thus anatomical left is out of the page and anatomical right is into the page. Measurement zones are marked by dashes (A,B,C,D) for the 6.4 LPM case. The Contour interval is 2 m/s.
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(a) For 8 LPM contours of axial velocity (m/s) are presented in the first row, secondary velocity vectors in the second row, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy (m2 /s2 ) are presented in the third row. Velocity vectors are represented by the magnitude of radial and tangential velocity (length) and direction of radial and tangential velocity. The particular density of vectors is representative of the density of cells in that region, not of any fluid flow property. Axial position A (0.015 m) and B (0.035 m) are presented. (b) For 8 LPM contours of axial velocity (m/s) are presented in the first row, secondary velocity vectors in the second row, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy (m2 /s2 ) are presented in the third row. Velocity vectors are represented by the magnitude of radial and tangential velocity (length) and direction of radial and tangential velocity. The particular density of vectors is representative of the density of cells in that region, not of any fluid flow property. Axial positions C (0.040 m) and D (0.045 m) are presented.

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