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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

The Effects of Different Mesh Generation Methods on Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis and Power Loss Assessment in Total Cavopulmonary Connection

[+] Author and Article Information
Yutong Liu, Kerem Pekkan, S. Casey Jones, Ajit P. Yoganathan

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA

J Biomech Eng 126(5), 594-603 (Nov 23, 2004) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1800553 History: Received January 30, 2004; Revised April 15, 2004; Online November 23, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

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Puga,  F. I., Chiavarelli,  M., and Hagler,  D. J., 1987, “Modifications of the Fontan Operation Applicable to Patients With the Left Atrioventricular Valve Atresia or Single Atrioventricular Valve,” Circulation, 76, pp. III-53–III-60.
de Leval,  M. R., 1998, “The Fontan Circulation: What Have We Learned? What to Expect?” Pediatr. Cardiol., 19, pp. 316–320.
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Ryu,  K., Healy,  T. M., Ensley,  A. E., Sharma,  S., Lucas,  C., and Yoganathan,  A. P., 2001, “Importance of Accurate Geometry in the Study of the Total Cavopulmonary Connection: Computational Simulations and In Vitro Experiments,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 29, pp. 844–853.
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Khunatorn,  Y., ,  , Khunatorn,  Y., DeGroff,  S. G., and Shandas,  R., 2002, “Influence of Connection Geometry and SVC-IVC Flow Rate Ratio on Flow Structures Within the Total Cavopulmonary Connection: A Numerical Study,” J. Biomech. Eng., 124, pp. 364–377.
Migliavacca,  F., de Leval,  M. R., Dubini,  G., Pietrabissa,  R., and Fumero,  R., 1999, “Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Cavopulmonary Connections With an Extracardiac Lateral Conduit,” Med. Eng. Phys., 21, pp. 187–193.
Gerdes,  A., Kunze,  J., Pfister,  G., and Sievers,  H., 1999, “Addition of a Small Curvature Reduces Power Losses Across Total Cavopulmonary Connections,” Ann. Thorac. Surg., 67, pp. 1760–1764.
Migliavacca,  F., Kilner,  P. J., Pennati,  G., Dubini,  G., Pietrabissa,  R., Fumero,  R., and de Leval,  M. R., 1999, “Computational Fluid Dynamic and Magnetic Resonance Analyses of Flow Distribution Between the Lungs After Total Cavopulmonary Connection,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 46, pp. 393–399.
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Figures

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Schematic shows the reconstructed circulation after an extra-cardiac total cavopulmonary connection surgery. The dashed box highlights the region of interest. LPA denotes the left pulmonary artery. PV denotes the flow of oxygenated blood in to the right and left atrium through the pulmonary veins.
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TCPC model with physiological IVC diameter, SVC diameter, and curved PA
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Structured mesh for the TCPC model. Only the connection region and LPA are shown. The grid blocks of the LPA are decomposed and some cells are removed for better visualization.
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Unstructured mesh for the TCPC model. Only the connection region and LPA are shown. Some cells in the LPA are removed for better visualization.
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Correlation plot used to determine outlet pressure boundary conditions in the structured models
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Energy loss calculated with three methods (simplified control volume, control volume, and energy dissipation) and CPU time as a function of the number of cells in structured models
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Energy loss calculated with three methods (simplified control volume, control volume, and energy dissipation) and CPU time as a function of the number of cells in the unstructured models
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Streamtraces on the (a) the vertical central plane and LPA cross section; and (b) the horizontal central plane. The arrows indicate the view direction.
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Comparison of flow fields on the vertical plane in the structured (left panel) and unstructured (right panel) models at the flow split condition of (a) LPA 30%:RPA 70%; (b) LPA 50%:RPA 50%; (c) LPA 70%:RPA 30%
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Comparison of flow fields of the horizontal plane in structured (upper panel) and unstructured (lower panel) models at the flow split condition of: (a) LPA 30%:RPA 70%, in which (1) shows streamtraces in the vertical plane through the core of the small recirculation, and (2) through the core of the large recirculation (b) LPA 50%:RPA 50%; (c) LPA 70%:RPA 30%
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Comparison of the secondary flow at the cross section two PA diameters from SVC centerline in structured (left panel) and unstructured (right panel) models at the flow split condition of (a) LPA 30%:RPA 70%; (b) LPA 50%:RPA 50%; (c) LPA 70%:RPA 30%
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Energy loss assessment by different calculation methods plotted against the different LPA flow split conditions in the (a) structured model and (b) unstructured model
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Energy loss assessment in different models plotted against the different LPA flow split conditions by (a) simplified control volume method, (b) control volume method, and (c) velocity gradient based viscous dissipation analysis

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