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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

DPIV Measurements of Flow Disturbances in Stented Artery Models: Adverse affects of Compliance Mismatch

[+] Author and Article Information
Saami K. Yazdani

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1022e-mail: syazdani@wfubmc.edu

James E. Moore

Biomedical Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, Zachry Engineering Center 234E, 3210 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3120e-mail: jmoorejr@tamu.edu

Joel L. Berry

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1022e-mail: jberry@wfubmc.edu

Pavlos P. Vlachos

Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Tech, 114 Randolph Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061e-mail: pvlachos@vt.edu

J Biomech Eng 126(5), 559-566 (Nov 23, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1797904 History: Received April 01, 2004; Revised May 27, 2004; Online November 23, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Schematic of experimental setup used to perform DPIV in both the SMART stent and rigid cylinder stent. The arrow indicates direction of flow.
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Diameter compliance measurements of both the SMART and solid cylinder stent. The zero position represents the leading edge of the stent. The solid line represents the SMART stent-vessel compliance. The dashed line represents the solid cylinder stent-vessel compliance.
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Measured Flow Waveform via ultrasonic flow meters located upstream of test section. Location of the two phases investigated in the pulsatile cycle. Phase 1 corresponded to 0.4 to 0.8 (T: period of the pulse). Phase 2 corresponded to 0.95 to 1.0 T.
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Flow development during phase 1 of the SMART stent illustrated via streamlines. As flow begins to decelerate, a propagating unsteady shear layer is shown to develop opposing the main flow (flow is from top to bottom). The shear layer detaches from the wall and rolls into a clockwise vortical structure near the leading edge of the stent. As flow fully reverses, the vortex is diffused into the flow.
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Flow development during phase 1 of the solid cylinder stent as illustrated via streamlines. As flow begins to decelerate, a propagating unsteady shear layer is shown to develop opposing the main flow (flow is from top to bottom). The shear layer detaches from the wall and rolls into a clockwise vortical structure near the leading edge of the stent. As flow fully reverses, the vortex is diffused into the flow.
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Flow development during phase 2 of the SMART stent as illustrated via streamlines. Flow is in the reverse part of the cycle (flow is from bottom to top). As flow begins to accelerates and begin the systolic part of the cycle, no vortical structures are observed. The time interval between each consecutive image is 0.005 seconds.
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Flow development during phase 2 of the solid cylinder stent as illustrated via streamlines. Flow is in the reverse part of the cycle (flow is from bottom to top). As flow begins to accelerates and begin the systolic part of the cylcle, a vortical structure is observed on the leading edge of the stent. The time interval between each consecutive image is 0.005 seconds.
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(Top): typical axisymmetric ring vortex is illustrated. (Bottom): the cross-section of an idealized ring vortex is shown, demonstrating the existence of two-counter rotating vortices. The thick black lines represent boundary walls.
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Illustration of vortex rotation superimposed with the free stream velocity.
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Secondary vortices in the transient boundary layer induced by the ring vortex in the solid cylinder case occurring at T=0.571.

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