Characterization of the Nuclear Deformation Caused by Changes in Endothelial Cell Shape

[+] Author and Article Information
Ronald P. Jean, Darren S. Gray, Alexander A. Spector, Christopher S. Chen

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205

J Biomech Eng 126(5), 552-558 (Nov 23, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1800559 History: Received May 26, 2004; Revised June 01, 2004; Online November 23, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Grahic Jump Location
Sketch of the projected nuclear and cell areas in the spread (dashed line) and round (solid line) states. Principal directions 1 and 2 correspond to the major and minor axes of the nucleus.
Grahic Jump Location
Representative phase-contrast images of the endothelial cell at time (a) t=0 s, and (b) t=180 s; and the corresponding processed images for (c) t=0 s, and (d) t=180 s. Adhesions were disrupted using a chemical treatment (trypsin).
Grahic Jump Location
Representative fluorescence images of the cell nuclei at time (a) t=0 s, and (b) t=180 s; and the corresponding processed images for (c) t=0 s, and (d) t=180 s
Grahic Jump Location
Nuclear stretch as a function of relative time for 0.006% (X ) and 0.017% (O ) of trypsin
Grahic Jump Location
Relative nuclear area change as a function of relative time for 0.006% (X ) and 0.017% (O ) of trypsin
Grahic Jump Location
Relative apparent adhesion area (projected area) change as a function of relative time for 0.017% trypsin (adhesion area ratio)
Grahic Jump Location
Ratio of the nuclear area ratio to the adhesion area ratio as a function of relative time for 0.017% trypsin
Grahic Jump Location
Conceptual sketch of the estimation of the forces deforming the nucleus during cell rounding. (A) and (b) preprocess of cell spreading; (a) cell in the round state, and (b) cell in the spread state where the nucleus is deformed by the cytoskeletal fibers. (C) and (d) process of cell rounding; (c) the reference (spread and prestressed state) and (d) the final round state (solid line), in order to reach the round state the forces (arrows) are applied to the nucleus in the spread state (dashed line); the forces are directed along the fibers that become inactivated during cell rounding, and they are opposite to those that extended the nucleus to its spread state in the preprocess.
Grahic Jump Location
The scheme to convert the stresses deforming the nucleus into a system of forces. In the model, the difference between the nuclear stresses in the final (round) and reference is analyzed, and the corresponding model forces appear as compressive. The application of these forces is equivalent to the effect of the loss of pretension. The contours of the projected areas of the nucleus in its spread and round states are given by the solid and dashed lines, respectively.
Grahic Jump Location
Nuclear stress, t, as a function of the relative volume change, J, and Poisson’s ratio, ν, corresponding to the round state
Grahic Jump Location
Nuclear stress, t, as a function of the relative volume change, J, and Poisson’s ratio, ν, corresponding to an intermediate state



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