Analysis of the Dynamic Permeation Experiment with Implication to Cartilaginous Tissue Engineering

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Y. Gu

Tissue Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL

D. N. Sun

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

W. M. Lai

Columbia University, New York, NY

V. C. Mow

Chair, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY

J Biomech Eng 126(4), 485-491 (Sep 27, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1785806 History: Received March 17, 2003; Revised December 31, 2003; Online September 27, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1983, “Electromechanical and physicochemical properties of connective tissue,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 9, pp. 133–199.
Maroudas, A., 1979, “Physicochemical properties of articular cartilage,” in Freeman, M. A. R. (ed.) Adult Articular Cartilage 2nd ed. Pitman Medical, pp. 215–290.
Mow,  V. C., Ratcliffe,  A., and Poole,  A. R., 1992, “Cartilage and diarthrodial joints as paradiams for hierarchical materials and structures,” Biomaterials, 13, pp. 67–97.
Muir, H., 1980, “The chemistry of the ground substance of joint cartilage,” in Sokolff, L. (ed.) The Joints and Synovial Fluid Academic Press, pp. 27–94.
Stockwell, R. A., 1979, Biology of Cartilage Cells Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Grodzinsky,  A. J., Levenston,  M. E., Jin,  M., and Frank,  E. H., 2000, “Cartilage tissue remodeling in response to mechanical forces,” Annu Rev Biomed Eng, 2, pp. 691–713.
Mow,  V. C., Wang,  C. C., and Hung,  C. T., 1999, “The extracellular matrix, interstitial fluid and ions as a mechanical signal transducer in articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 7, pp. 41–58.
Jones,  I. L., Klamfeldt,  A., and Sandstrom,  T., 1982, “The effect of continuous mechanical pressure upon the turnover of articular cartilage proteoglycans,” Clin. Orthop., 165, pp. 283–289.
Sah,  R. L., Kim,  Y. J., Doong,  J. Y., Grodzinsky,  A. J., Plaas,  A. H., and Sandy,  J. D., 1989, “Biosynthetic response of cartilage explants to dynamic compression,” J. Orthop. Res., 7, pp. 619–636.
Sah,  R. L., Grodzinsky,  A. J., Plaas,  A. H., and Sandy,  J. D., 1990, “Effects of tissue compression on the hyaluronate-binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycans in cartilage explants,” Biochem. J., 267, pp. 803–808.
Schneiderman,  R., Keret,  D., and Maroudas,  A., 1986, “Effects of mechanical and osmotic pressure on the rate of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the human adult femoral head cartilage: an in vitro study,” J. Orthop. Res., 4, pp. 393–408.
Guilak, F., Sah, R. L., and Setton, L. A., 1997, “Physical regulation of cartilage metabolism,” in Mow, V. C. and Hayes, W. C. (eds.) Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics New York: Raven Press, pp. 179–207.
Mizuno,  S., Alleman,  F., and Glowachi,  J., 2001, “Effects of medium perfusion on matrix production by bovine chondrocytes in three-dimensional collagen sponges,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 56, pp. 368–375.
Parkkinen,  J. J., Ikonen,  J., Lammi,  M. J., Laakkonen,  J., Tammi,  M., and Helminen,  H. J., 1993, “Effects of cyclic hydrostatic pressure on proteoglycan synthesis in cultured chondrocytes and articular cartilage explants,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 300, pp. 458–465.
Suh,  J. K., Baek,  G. H., Aroen,  A., Malin,  C. M., Niyibizi,  C., Evans,  C. H., and Westerhausen-Larson,  A., 1999, “Intermittant sub-ambient interstitial hydrostatic pressure as a potential mechanical stimulator for chondrocyte metabolism,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 7, pp. 71–80.
Buschmann,  M. D., Gluzband,  Y. A., Grodzinsky,  A. J., and Hunziker,  E. B., 1995, “Mechanical compression modulates matrix biosynthesis in chondrocyte/agarose culture,” J. Cell. Sci., 108(Pt 4), pp. 1497–1508.
Buschmann,  M. D., Kim,  Y. J., Wong,  M., Frank,  E., Hunziker,  E. B., and Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1999, “Stimulation of aggrecan synthesis in cartilage explants by cyclic loading is localized to regions of high interstitial fluid flow,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 366, pp. 1–7.
Guilak,  F., Meyer,  B. C., Ratcliffe,  A., and Mow,  V. C., 1994, “The effects of matrix compression on proteoglycan metabolism in articular cartilage explants,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2, pp. 91–101.
Kim,  Y. J., Sah,  R. L., Grodzinsky,  A. J., Plaas,  A. H., and Sandy,  J. D., 1994, “Mechanical regulation of cartilage biosynthetic behavior: physical stimuli,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 311, pp. 1–12.
Kim,  Y. J., Bonassar,  L. J., and Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1995, “The role of cartilage streaming potential, fluid flow and pressure in the stimulation of chondrocyte biosynthesis during dynamic compression,” J. Biomech., 28, pp. 1055–1066.
Torzilli,  P. A., Grigiene,  R., Huang,  C., Friedman,  S. M., Doty,  S. B., Boskey,  A. L., and Lust,  G., 1997, “Characterization of cartilage metabolic response to static and dynamic stress using a mechanical explant test system,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 1–9.
Valhmu,  W. B., Stazzone,  E. J., Bachrach,  N. M., Saed-Nejad,  F., Fisher,  S. G., Mow,  V. C., and Ratcliffe,  A., 1998, “Load-controlled compression of articular cartilage induces a transient stimulation of aggrecan gene expression,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 353, pp. 29–36.
Levenston,  M. E., Frank,  E. H., and Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1999, “Electrokinetic and poroelastic coupling during finite deformations of charged porous media,” J. Appl. Mech., 66, pp. 323–333.
Sun,  D. N., Guo,  X. E., Likhitpanichkul,  M., Lai,  W. M., and Mow,  V. C., 2003, “The Influence of the fixed negative charges on mechanical and electrical behaviors of articular cartilage under unconfined compression,” J. Biomech. Eng., 126, pp. 6–16.
Gu,  W. Y., Lai,  W. M., and Mow,  V. C., 1993, “Transport of fluid and ions through a porous-permeable charged-hydrated tissue, and streaming potential data on normal bovine articular cartilage,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 709–723.
Gu,  W. Y., Mao,  X. G., Foster,  R. J., Weidenbaum,  M., Mow,  V. C., and Rawlins,  B. A., 1999, “The anisotropic hydraulic permeability of human lumbar anulus fibrosus. Influence of age, degeneration, direction, and water content,” Spine, 24, pp. 2449–2455.
Lai,  W. M., and Mow,  V. C., 1980, “Drag-induced compression of articular cartilage during a permeation experiment,” Biorheology, 17, pp. 111–123.
Mansour,  J. M., and Mow,  V. C., 1976, “The permeability of articular cartilage under compressive strain and at high pressures,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 58, pp. 509–516.
Maroudas,  A., 1968, “Physicochemical properties of cartilage in the light of ion exchange theory,” Biophys. J., 8, pp. 575–595.
Pazzano,  D., Mercier,  K. A., Moran,  J. M., Fong,  S. S., DiBiasio,  D. D., Rulfs,  J. X., Kohles,  S. S., and Bonassar,  L. J., 2000, “Comparison of chondrogensis in static and perfused bioreactor culture,” Biotechnol. Prog., 16, pp. 893–896.
Temenoff,  J. S., and Mikos,  A. G., 2000, “Review: Tissue engineering for regeneration of articular cartilage,” Biomaterials, 21, pp. 431–440.
Lai,  W. M., Mow,  V. C., Sun,  D. D., and Ateshian,  G. A., 2000, “On the electric potentials inside a charged soft hydrated biological tissue: streaming potential versus diffusion potential,” J. Biomech. Eng., 122, pp. 336–346.
Lai,  W. M., Hou,  J. S., and Mow,  V. C., 1991, “A triphasic theory for the swelling and deformation behaviors of articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. Eng., 113, pp. 245–258.
Sun,  D. N., Gu,  W. Y., Guo,  X. E., Lai,  W. M., and Mow,  V. C., 1999, “A mixed finite element formulation of triphasic mechano-electrochemical theory for charged, hydrated biological soft tissues,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 45, pp. 1375–1402.
Klein, T., Schumacher, B., Li, K., Voegtline, M., Masuda, K., Thonar, E., and Sah, R., 2003, “Tissue engineered articular cartilage with functional stratification: targeted delivery of chondrocytes expressing superficial zone protein,” Proceedings of 48th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Paper No. 0212.
Sharma, B., Williams, C. G., Cho, H., Kim, T., Malik, A., Sun, D., and Elisseeff, J. H., 2003, “Engineering structurally organized musculoskeletal tissues using photopolymerizable hydrogels,” Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society, Paper No. 2.6.3.
Waldman,  S. D., Grynpas,  M. D., Pilliar,  R. M., and Kandel,  R. A., 2003, “The use of specific chondrocyte populations to modulate the properties of tissue-engineered cartilage,” J. Orthop. Res., 21, pp. 132–138.
Huang,  C. Y., Mow,  V. C., and Ateshian,  G. A., 2001, “The role of flow-independent viscoelasticity in the biphasic tensile and compressive responses of articular cartilage,” J. Biomech. Eng., 123, pp. 410–417.
Sun, D. N., 2002, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of the mechano-electrochemical properties of articular cartilage, a charged-hydrated-soft, biological tissue,” Ph.D. Columbia University.
Wang,  C. C., Hung,  C. T., and Mow,  V. V., 2001, “An analysis of the effects of depth-dependent aggregate modulus on articular cartilage stress-relaxation behavior in compression,” J. Biomech., 34, pp. 75–84.


Grahic Jump Location
(a) A schematic representation of the permeation problem under consideration. (b) The pressure difference across the tissue. Only one cycle is drawn here. (c) The normalized displacement at the top boundary (z=h) as a function of time for loading frequency (f) of 0.01 Hz. After 4 to 5 cycles, it is seen that a steadily periodic response is achieved. This motion of the solid matrix is due to the drag of fluid permeation.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) The time variation of the normalized water volume flux distribution throughout the tissue during the 8th pressure cycle (f=0.01 Hz). The water volume flux is defined as Jww(vw−vs) and normalized by D+/h (=1 μm/s). Steady downward streaming of fluid is seen near the top of the specimen (z/h>0.6), and oscillatory efflux is seen at the lower platen (z/h=0). (b) The time variation of the normalized water volume flux distribution throughout the tissue during the 8th pressure differential cycle (f=0.01 Hz). At the downstream boundary (z/h=1), the cation efflux may be positive (into the tissue) or negative (out of the tissue). The cation flux distribution is normalized by 10−4 mol/m2 s. (c) The time variation of axial strain distribution throughout the tissue during the 8th pressure differential cycle (f=0.01 Hz). Oscillatory compressive strain is seen at the lower portion of the tissue, while steady compression is seen in the top portion. (d) The variation of cation concentration distribution throughout the tissue during 8th pressure differential cycle (f=0.01 Hz). (e) The electrical potential distributions inside the tissue relative to the bottom of the tissue during 8th cycle (f=0.01 Hz). Note that the electrical potential may change polarity in time and space.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) The length of the boundary layer vs. the frequency. The parameter values are the same as those in the case with typical cartilage parameter values (see Table 1) except the frequency. The length of the strain boundary layer, δ, is defined as the distance from the supporting boundary (x=0) where maximum strain variation occurs to the point where 1/e(e is the basis of natural logarithm) of the maximum strain variation occurs. (b) The ratios of the maximum positive and negative fluxes (at the supporting boundary) in the dynamic case over the corresponding constant fluxes in the static case. The parameter values are the same as those in the standard case except the frequency. Note that all are calculated from data at the 8th cycle.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) The time-averaged water flux over a period of the 8th cycle vs. different DC offsets of the applied pressure. (b) The averaged cation flux in a period vs. different DC offsets of the applied pressure. The frequency is a parameter.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) The potential response on a pair of Ag/AgCl electrodes placed in solutions across the tissue during the 7th and 8th cycles (f=0.01 Hz). The bottom electrode is taken to be ground. Steadily periodic potential responses are observed when the steadily mechanical responses are obtained. (b) The magnitude of the potential response measured by Ag/AgCl electrodes at the 8th cycle vs. tissue FCD with tissue stiffness as a parameter.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In