Effect of a Lipid Pool on Stress/Strain Distributions in Stenotic Arteries: 3-D Fluid-Structure Interactions (FSI) Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Dalin Tang

Mathematical Sciences Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609

Chun Yang

Mathematics Dept, Beijing Normal University, China

Shunichi Kobayashi

Dept. of Functional Machinery and Mechanics, Shinshu Univ., Nagano, Japan

David N. Ku

School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

J Biomech Eng 126(3), 363-370 (Jun 24, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1762898 History: Received April 24, 2003; Revised October 15, 2003; Online June 24, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Burke,  A. P., Farb,  A., Malcom,  G. T., Liang,  Y. H., Smialek,  J. E., and Virmani,  R., 1999, “Plaque Rupture and Sudden Death Related to Exertion in Men With Coronary Artery Disease,” J. Am. Med. Assoc., 281(10), pp. 921–926.
Fuster,  V., Stein,  B., Ambrose,  J. A., Badimon,  L., Badimon,  J. J., and Chesebro,  J. H., 1990, “Atherosclerotic Plaque Rupture and Thrombosis,” Circulation, Supplement II,82(3), pp. II-47–II-59.
Davies,  M. J., and Thomas,  A. C., 1985, “Plaque Fissuring-the Cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction, Sudden Ischemic Death, and Crecendo Angina,” Br. Heart J., 53, pp. 363–373.
Falk,  E., Shah,  P. K., and Fuster,  V., 1995, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation, 92, pp. 657–671.
Ravn,  H. B., and Falk,  E., 1995, “Histopathology of Plaque Rupture,” Cardiol. Clin., 17, pp. 263–270.
Fayad,  Z. A., Fallon,  J. T., Shinnar,  M., Wehrli,  S., Dansky,  H. M., Poon,  M., Badimon,  J. J., Charlton,  S. A., Fisher,  E. A., Breslow,  J. L., and Fuster,  V., 1998, “Noninvasive In Vivo High-Resolution MRI of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Genetically Engineered Mice,” Circulation, 98, pp. 1541–1547.
Yuan,  C., Mitsumori,  L. M., Beach,  K. W., and Maravilla,  K. R., 2001, “Special Review Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque: Noninvasive MR Characterization and Identification of Vulnerable Lesions,” Radiology, 221, pp. 285–99.
Beattie,  D., Xu,  C., Vito,  R. P., Glagov,  S., and Whang,  M. C., 1998, “Mechanical Analysis of Heterogeneous, Atherosclerotic Human Aorta,” J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 602–607.
Lee,  R. T., and Kamm,  R. D., 1994, “Review: Vascular Mechanics for the Cardiologist,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 23(6), pp. 1289–95.
Loree,  H. M., Tobias,  B. J., Gibson,  L. J., Kamm,  R. D., Small,  D. M., and Lee,  R. T., 1994, “Mechanical Properties of Model Atherosclerotic Lesion Lipid Pools,” Arterioscler. Thromb., 14(2), pp. 230–234.
McCord, B. N., 1992, “Fatigue of Atherosclerotic Plaque,” Ph.D Thesis. Georgia Institute of Technology.
McCord, B. N., and Ku, D. N., 1993, “Mechanical Rupture of the Atherosclerostic Plaque Fibrous Cap,” Proceedings of 1993 Bioengineering Conference, BED-Vol 24, pp. 324–327.
Berry,  J. L., Santamarina,  A., Moore,  J. E., Roychowdhury,  S., and Routh,  W. D., 2000, “Experimental and Computational Flow Evaluation of Coronary Stents,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 28, pp. 386–398.
Lei,  M., Giddens,  D. P., Jones,  S. A., Loth,  F., and Bassiouny,  H., 2001, “Pulsatile Flow in an End-to-Side Vascular Graft Model: Comparison of Computations With Experimental Data,” J. Biomech. Eng., 123, pp. 80–87.
Moore,  J. A., Steinman,  D. A., Prakash,  S., Johnson,  K. W., and Ethier,  C. R., 1999, “A Numerical Study of Blood Flow Patterns in Anatomically Realistic and Simplified End-to-Side Anastomoses,” J. Biomech. Eng., 121, pp. 265–272.
Perktold,  K., Rappotsch,  G., Hofer,  M., Karner,  G., and Andlinger,  K., 1996, “Effects of Vessel Wall Compliance on Flow and Stress Patterns in Arterial Bends and Bifurcations,” Adv. Bioeng., BED-Vol 33, pp. 329–330.
Tang,  D., Yang,  C., Kobayashi,  S., and Ku,  D. N., 2001, “Steady Flow and Wall Compression in Stenotic Arteries: A 3-D Thick-Wall Model With Fluid-Wall Interactions,” J. Biomech. Eng., 123, pp. 548–557.
Tang,  D., Yang,  C., Kobayashi,  S., and Ku,  D. N., 2002, “Simulating Cyclic Artery Compression Using a 3-D Unsteady Model With Fluid-Structure Interactions,” Computers and Structures,80, pp. 1651–1665.
Long,  Q., Xu,  X. Y., Bourne,  M., and Griffith,  T. M., 2000, “Numerical Study of Blood Flow in an Anatomically Realistic Aorta-Iliac Bifurcation Generated From MRI Data,” Magn. Reson. Med., 43, pp. 565–576.
Long,  Q., Xu,  X. Y., Ramnarine,  K. V., and Hoskins,  P., 2001, “Numerical Investigation of Physiologically Realistic Pulsatile Flow Through Arterial Stenosis,” J. Biomech., 34, pp. 1229–1242.
Fogelson,  A. L., 1992, “Continuum Models of Platelet Aggregation: Formulation and Mechanical Properties,” SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Appl. Math., 52, pp. 1089–1110.
Ku,  D. N., 1997, “Blood Flow in Arteries,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 29, pp. 399–434.
Yamaguchi, T., Kobayashi, T., and Liu, H., 1998, “Fluid-Wall Interactions in the Collapse and Ablation of an Atheromatous Plaque in Coronary Arteries,” Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Biomechanics, pp. 20b.
Yamaguchi,  T., Nakayama,  T., and Kobayashi,  T., 1996, “Computations of the Wall Mechanical Response Under Unsteady Flows in Arterial Diseases,” Adv. Bioeng., BED-Vol 33, pp. 369–370.
Yamaguchi,  T., Furuta,  N., Nakayama,  T., and Kobayashi,  T., 1995, “Computations of the Fluid and Wall Mechanical Interactions in Arterial Diseases,” Adv. Bioeng., BED-Vol 31, pp. 197–198.
Huang,  H., Virmani,  R., Younis,  H., Burke,  A. P., Kamm,  R. D., and Lee,  R. T., 2001, “The Impact of Calcification on the Biomechanical Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Circulation, 103, pp. 1051–1056.
Holzapfel,  G. A., Stadler,  M., and Schulze-Bause,  C. A. J., 2002, “A Layer-Specific Three-Dimensional Model for the Simulation of Balloon Angioplasty Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Mechanical Testing,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 30, No. 6, pp. 753–767.
Kaazempur-Mofrad,  M. R., Bathe,  M., Karcher,  H., Younis,  H. F., Seong,  H. C., Shim,  E. B., Chan,  R. C., Hinton,  D. P., Isasi,  A. G., Upadhyaya,  A., Powers,  M. J., Griffith,  L. G., and Kamm,  R. D., 2003, “Role of Simulation in Understanding Biological Systems,” Computers and Structures, 81, pp. 715–726.
Cheng,  G. C., Loree,  H. M., Kamm,  R. D., Fishbein,  M. C., and Lee,  R. T., 1993, “Distribution of Circumferential Stress in Ruptured and Stable Atherosclerotic Lesions, A Structural Analysis With Histopathological Correlation,” Circulation, 87, pp. 1179–1187.
Tang, D., Yang, C., Zheng, J., and Yuan, C., “MRI-Based Flow and Stress Analysis of Human Arterial Plaques With Lipid Cores and Calcifications,” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, 2003.
Kobayashi, S., Tsunoda, D., Fukuzawa, Y., Morikawa, H., Tang, D., and Ku, D. N., “Flow and Compression in Arterial Models of Stenosis With Lipid Core,” Proceedings of 2003 ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, 2003.
Kamm,  R. D., and Shapiro,  A. H., 1979, “Unsteady Flow in a Collapsible Tube Subjected to External Pressure or Body Force,” J. Biomech. Eng., 95, pp. 1–78.
Bathe, K. J., 1996, Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Bathe, K. J. et al., 2002, Theory and Modeling Guide, Vol I: ADINA, ADINA R & D, Inc., Watertown, MA.
Bathe, K. J. et al., 2002, Theory and Modeling Guide, Vol III: ADINA-F, ADINA R & D, Inc., Watertown, MA.
Bathe, K. J. et al., 2002, ADINA Verification Manual, ADINA R & D, Inc., Watertown, MA.
Fung, Y. C., 1993, Biomechanics, Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, second edition, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Fung, Y. C., 1993, Biodynamics, Motion, Stress and Growth, 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Fung,  Y. C., Liu,  S. Q., and Zhou,  J. B., 1993, “Remodeling of the Constitutive Equation While a Tissue Remodels Itself Under Stress,” J. Biomech. Eng., 115(4B), pp. 453–459.
Bathe,  M., and Kamm,  R. D., 1999, “A Fluid-Structure Interaction Finite Element Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Through a Compliant Stenotic Artery,” J. Biomech. Eng., 121, pp. 361–369.


Grahic Jump Location
Tube circumferential stretch (straight part) from computational model compared with experimental tube-law measurements. Parameters are the same as in Fig. 8. The agreement is good since material properties were chosen to match experimental tube law.
Grahic Jump Location
The hydrogel stenotic tube with a lipid pool used in the experiment. L=11 cm, Ls=1.6 cm, D=0.8 cm, h=0.1 cm.
Grahic Jump Location
Geometries of stenosis models used in the computational simulation. Tubes were cut short for better viewing. Severity=70%, eccentricity=100%. a) baseline model; b) smaller pool, c) pool with a thinner cap.
Grahic Jump Location
Stress/strain (stretch ratio) relations for vessel material given by Mooney-Rivlin model matches experimental data well. Experimental data: positive stress part derived from tube law, negative stress part was measured by compression test. Lagrange Stress is plotted.
Grahic Jump Location
Maximum principal stress band plots showing effects of initial axial stretch, pressurization and FSI on stress distributions. a) p=0 mmHg, 36.5% axial stretch, no FSI; b) p=100 mmHg, no stretch, no FSI; c) p=100 mmHg, 36.5% stretch, no FSI; d) Pin=100 mmHg, Pout=20 mmHg, 36.5% stretch, FSI; e) Plot on the tube inner surface for baseline model. Stenosis part included.
Grahic Jump Location
Maximum principal stress plots showing higher pressure, smaller lipid pool, and thinner plaque cap have considerable impact on stress distributions. Stenosis severity=70%. Eccentricity=100%. a) higher pressure case; b) smaller lipid pool case; c) thinner cap case.
Grahic Jump Location
Flow velocity, shear stress and pressure plots for baseline case showing flow recirculation, peak shear stress and negative pressure minimum. a) velocity plot; b) shear stress along up and low boundary lines; c) pressure distribution in stenosis region has a complex pattern. Small dark arrows in a) are for illustration purpose only. They are not quantitative.
Grahic Jump Location
Stenosis eccentricity has considerable effect on extreme stress/strain values and locations. Stenosis severity: 70%. Pin=100 mmHg. Pout=20 mmHg. Lipid pool is removed for simplicity. a) maximal principal stress plot for Ecc=100%; b) maximal principal stress plot for Ecc=0%; c) circumferential strain plot for Ecc=100%; d) circumferential strain plot for Ecc=0%.
Grahic Jump Location
Flow rates from computational model compared with experimental measurements. Stenosis severity=70%. Eccentricity=100%. Pin=100 mmHg. Pout=90–10 mmHg with increment 10 mmHg. The disagreement is about 5% which may be due to the larger lipid pool in the computational model which makes the true severity of the computational model smaller than the true severity of the experimental model. True severity=(D−Ds)/D where D and Ds are all measured with pressure and stretch applied.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In